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Some question about materials for PCR

Some question about materials for PCR


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I'm planning to order oligo, polymerase, nucleotide, buffer for my first diy PCR experiment (now I have nothing), so I have some questions.

  1. How and how long I can storage them? I have only a fridge that can freeze to -10 -> -20C.

  2. I see the size/concentration of polymerase is 400 units and 25 nmole of oligo. So what can I do with 25 nmole oligo and 400 units of polymerase? How many PCR experiment I can do with 400 units of polymerase, and how many PCR experiment I can do with 25 nmole of oligo?

  3. If I have a HPLC machine, can I reuse the polymerase by purify it after reaction?


The manufacturers of each component should have information available on their website regarding storage temperatures, along with recommended protocols on how much of each component to add to the PCR reaction. I would not try to reuse the polymerase, as depending on the kind you buy it may be a complex of proteins, and it may not be functional after purification. However, you're welcome to experiment all you want, it's your stuff!


  • 1: -20 is the normal storage condition for PCR reagents in the lab so you should be ok. One warning: you should make sure that your freezer is NOT auto-defrosting. Most consumer freezers will cycle temperature to prevent frost build up. This is very bad for enzymes and will greatly reduce their lifespan. If you can't find a non-defrosting freezer, you might be ok if you buffer the temperature by keeping your enzyme in a cooler in the freezer, or inside a block of metal with a hold drilled in it.

  • 2: You can stretch your reagents by lowering the volume of each PCR reaction. 25uL is workable in the lab, but keep in mind that the smaller the volume the larger the relative error in your measurements becomes.

  • 3: It seems strange to me that you have access to a HPLC machine but can't afford to buy new enzyme when you run out. I really wouldn't try to reuse anything. Maybe it could work, but would you really trust your results? If you shop around you can find cheaper brands of polymerase.

Good luck!


Learn about Genetic Engineering through a Few Questions and Answers

Biotechnology is the application of biological knowledge to obtain new techniques, materials and compounds for pharmaceutical, medical, agricultural, industrial and scientific use, that is, for practical use.

The first fields of biotechnology were agriculture and the food industry. Nowadays, many other practical fields use its techniques.

Genetic Engineering Definition

More Bite-Sized Q&As Below

2. What is genetic engineering?

Genetic engineering is the use of genetic knowledge to artificially manipulate genes. It is one of the fields of biotechnology.

3. At the present level of advancement of biotechnology, what are the main techniques of genetic engineering?

The main genetic engineering techniques used today are: recombinant DNA technology (also called genetic engineering), in which pieces of genes from an organism are inserted into the genetic material of another organism to produce recombinant organisms nucleus transplantation technology, popularly known as “cloning”, in which the nucleus of a cell is grafted into an enucleated egg cell of the same species to create a genetic copy of the donor (of the nucleus) individual and DNA amplification technology, or PCR (polymerase chain reaction), which allows to produce millions of replications of the chosen fragments of a DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology is used to create transgenic organisms, such as mutant insulin-producing bacteria. Nucleus transplantation technology is in its initial development but is the basis, for example, of the creation of “Dolly” the sheep. PCR has numerous practical uses, such as in medical tests to detect microorganisms present in blood and tissues, DNA fingerprinting and the obtainment of DNA samples for research.

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Restriction Enzymes and Recombinant਍NA Technology

4. What are restriction enzymes? How do these enzymes participate in recombinant DNA technology?

Restriction enzymes, or restriction endonucleases, are enzymes specialized in the cutting of DNA fragments, which each have an effect on specific sites of the DNA molecule. Restriction enzymes are used in recombinant DNA technology to obtain with pieces of DNA molecules with precision, which will later be inserted into other DNA molecules cut by the same enzymes.

5. What are DNA ligases? How do these enzymes participate in recombinant DNA technology?

DNA ligases are enzymes specialized in tying the complementary DNA chains that form the DNA double helix. These enzymes are used in recombinant DNA technology to insert pieces of DNA cut by restriction enzymes into other DNA molecules undergoing the effect of the same endonucleases.

6. What are plasmids?

Plasmids are circular DNA molecules present in the genetic material of some bacteria. They may contain the genes responsible for bacterial resistance to some antibiotics as well as the genes for producing proteins that cause virulence (pathogenic hostility). 

7. How is genetic engineering used to create bacteria capable of producing human insulin?

In the production of human insulin by bacteria, the human insulin gene is incorporated into the genetic material of these microorganisms. The mutant bacteria multiply, forming lineages of insulin-producing bacteria.

Bacteria contain circular strands of DNA called plasmids, which are mini-chromosomes that act as an accessory to the primary DNA. To create mutant bacteria capable of producing insulin, a plasmid is submitted to the effect of restriction enzymes (restriction endonucleases) specialized in cutting DNA fragments. The once circular plasmid is opened by the restriction enzyme. The same enzyme is used to cut a human DNA molecule containing the insulin gene. The piece of human DNA containing the insulin gene is then bound to the plasmid at its ends through the help of DNA ligases. The recombinant plasmid containing the human insulin gene is then inserted into the bacteria.

Another human hormone already produced by recombinant bacteria is GH (somatotropin, or growth hormone).

The insertion of DNA molecules into the cells of an individual is also used in gene therapy, a promising treatment for genetic diseases. In gene therapy, cells from an organism deficient in the production of a given protein receive (by means of vectors, such as virus) pieces of DNA containing the protein gene and then begin to synthesize the protein.

Genetic Cloning

8. What is cloning?

Cloning is the production of an organism genetically identical to another by means of genetic engineering.

The basis of cloning is nucleus transplantation technology. A nucleus from a cell is extracted, generally from an embryonic (undifferentiated) cell and this nucleus is inserted into a previously enucleated reproductive cell (in general an egg cell) the egg is then implanted in the organ where the embryonic development will take place. If embryonic development occurs, the new organism will have an identical genetic content to the organism organism whose cell nucleus was used in the transplantation.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

9. What is PCR? How does PCR works?

PCR, polymerase chain reaction, is a method to synthesize many copies of specific regions of a DNA molecule known as target-regions. Its inventor, Kary Mullis, won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1993.

First, the DNA to be tested is heated to cause the double helix to rupture and the polynucleotide chains to be exposed. Then, small synthetic sequences of DNA known as primers and containing nucleotide sequences similar to the sequences of the extremities of the region to be studied (for example, a region containing a known gene exclusive to a given organism) are added. The primers are paired with the original DNA at the ends of the gene to be amplified. Enzymes known as polymerases, which catalyze DNA replication, and nucleotide supply are added. The primers are then completed and the chosen region is replicated. In the presence of more primers and more nucleotides, millions of copies of that specific region are generated. (PCR is very sensitive, even when using a minimal amount of DNA).

DNA Fingerprinting

10. What molecular biology principle is the basis for DNA fingerprinting?

DNA fingerprinting, the method of the identification of individuals using DNA, is based on the fact that the DNA of every individual (except for identical twins and individual clones) contains nucleotide sequences exclusive to each individual.

Although normal individuals of the same species have the same genes in their chromosomes, each individual has different alleles and even in the inactive portions of the chromosomes (heterochromatin), there are differences in nucleotide sequences among individuals.

Genetic Engineering Dangers and Ethics

11. Why are recombinant DNA technology and nucleus transplantation technology still dangerous?

Recombinant DNA technology and nucleus transplantation technology (cloning) are extremely dangerous since they are able to modify, in a very short time, the ecological balance that evolution has taken millions of years to create on the planet. During the evolutionary process, under the slow and gradual effect of mutations, genetic recombinations and natural selection, species emerged, were modified, and genetic heritages were formed. With genetic engineering, however, humans can mix and modify genes, making changes with unpredictable long-term consequences, risking the creation of new plant or animal diseases, new types of cancers and new disease outbreaks. It is a field as potentially dangerous as the manipulation of nuclear energy.

12. What is the main moral problem regarding the cloning of human individuals?

In addition to the biological perils, a very serious moral problem involves nucleus transplantation technology concerning humans: the individual rights of a human being are violated when a man or woman is made as a copy of another.

Since it is impossible to first ask if the person to be cloned wants to be a genetic copy of another person or not, it is clear that the most important human right is being violated when making one human as a copy of another: the right to individual freedom. This is a danger to democracy, whose most basic principle is the respect of individual freedom.

Now that you have finished studying Genetic Engineering, these are your options:


Biology Research Proposal: Guidelines and Examples


This article will give you the guidelines on how to write a good research proposal. Furthermore, if you lack idea's for writing a research proposal in the field of Biology/Life science, you will find many idea's in this article which you can use to write a project proposal of your own.

Writing a good research proposal is part and parcel in the life of an academician, student, scientist. You may need to write research proposals for PhD applications, for scholarships, for post-doctoral fellowships, as well as for getting grants and funding.

Guidelines

You may be very intelligent and have an excellent idea but to convince others about your idea, you need to present it excellently. First of all of you need to plan out every detail of your idea, so that you can predict timeline, requirements and most importantly what all you can infer from your data. Secondly you need to write it out in such a manner that you convince the pioneers of your field that your idea is excellent and it should definitely be translated into actual research.

While in some cases the format and word limit of the proposals is mentioned, in other cases you have to write according to your own judgement. The format of a research proposal should include the following basics.

1. Title: The title should be precise and unassuming. Do not write – 'To develop cure for cancer' if in actually you want to check metastatic properties of X compound. A proposal is the not place where you want to make an interesting title that doesn't speak sufficiently about the project. Don't write – 'How do lysosomes eat?' if your project is about pathways involved in degradation inside lysosomes. Be scientific. Don't make the title too lengthy such that it is difficult to understand.

2. Abstract / Summary: In most cases the person reviewing your proposal will decide to read the entire proposal only on the basis of your abstract. So your abstract should be succinct and catchy at the same time. Ideally don't let it exceed 250 words. Avoid excess of technical details in the abstract and emphasize more on the idea and its significance.

3. Significance: Write exactly why is your idea so important. What are the reasons that such research should definitely be carried out. What is the benefit from the research going to be?

4. Objectives/ Aims: Write down the different objectives and aims that are included in your project. It is preferable to break down your project into sections and give each of them a heading – these can act as your objectives/aims.

5. Background / Literature review: Here in put in all the data that has led to the idea. Give proper references for all of the information. Make sure that it flows in logical order and it is possible to connect the statements to each other. If possible divide the background into subheadings all of which reflect the individual objectives. Subheadings can also be made according to any other suitable factors. The background should only include what is relevant for your project and not excess details – e.g. you want to characterize expression level using RT-PCR. So don't start with history of RT-PCR etc., just give a few examples(along with references) wherein RT-PCR has been used for the same purpose.

6. Methodology: This is where you finally explain how you intend to go about your work. The level of detail depends upon the requirements of the reviewer. Usually for grants high level of detail is required in this step. Explain the methodology of each objective in explicit detail. Any references used in section should be properly mentioned. It is also advisable to include a timeline in this section. The timeline should show how much time will be required for each step (e.g. 1st objective – 6months, 2nd objective – 2 years etc.). It is ideal to include a flow chart that illustrates your methodology as well as timeline.
Herein you should also include the expected results as well as what interpretations can be made from those results. Furthermore, you need to add what you would do next if you achieve those results – whatever they might be.

7. References: Make a list of all the references used in the proposal. They should be in any one of the standard formats such as APA or Harvard Style referencing. They can be ordered either alphabetically or according to order in which they appear in the proposal. There shouldn't be difference in font or format in the entire reference list. The references should not include general websites such as Wikipedia or blogs, they can include books and journal articles.
Your proposal should be easy read. Highlight all the important points so that a person skimming through it is also able to get the complete gist. Always maintain flow of thought while writing. Double check your work for grammatical errors and typos as they leave a very bad impression on the reviewer. Make sure that any figures, tables or flow charts included in the proposal are properly labelled.


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PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Definition

PCR (polymerase chain reaction): PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is a technique in molecular genetics that permits the analysis of any short sequence of DNA (or RNA) even in samples containing only minute quantities of DNA or RNA. PCR is used to reproduce (amplify) selected sections of DNA or RNA for analysis. Previously, amplification of DNA involved cloning the segments of interest into vectors for expression in bacteria, and took weeks. But now, with PCR done in test tubes, it takes only a few hours. PCR is highly efficient so that untold numbers of copies can be made of the DNA. What is more, PCR uses the same molecules that nature uses for copying DNA:

  • Two "primers", short single-stranded DNA sequences that are synthesized to correspond to the beginning and ending of the DNA stretch to be copied
  • An enzyme called polymerase that moves along the segment of DNA, reading its code and assembling a copy and
  • A pile of DNA building blocks that the polymerase needs to make that copy.

SOURCE:
MedTerms.com. PCR (polymerase chain reaction).

CDC.gov. Mycobacterium cosmeticum, Ohio and Venezuela.

MedicineNet.com. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

Mullis, K. The unusual origin of the polymerase chain reaction. Scientific American. 262 (4): 56–61, 1990.


Filters for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

PCR is a technique to make multiple copies of a short sequence of target DNA, exponentially amplifying it. DNA must be amplified so that there is enough material to reliably detect and identify it with a high degree of confidence. PCR is used in a multitude of applications, including infectious disease diagnosis.

If the target DNA sequence from a pathogen of interest is detected in a sample from a patient and subsequently amplified, its presence is confirmed by a fluorescence signal. If the target is an RNA sequence, then DNA that is complementary to the RNA is amplified, as is the case with RNA viruses such as the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19.

The goal of PCR is to make enough of the target DNA region so that its presence can be measured or confirmed for diagnostic, clinical, or experimental purposes. The value of this approach is that only the specific target sequences must be amplified, without needlessly amplifying all the DNA in an entire gene or chromosome.

Chroma Technology has been supplying high-quality PCR filters to major test equipment manufacturers for many years. This has provided Chroma with valuable experience and application expertise. Our technical staff not only have a deep understanding of fluorescence, managing light, and biophotonics but also have extensive experience working with PCR investigators and engineers.

Chroma’s ET filters for fluorescence applications such as PCR provide unmatched levels of spectral precision. This allows for minimizing spectral overlap — which is always present between fluorescent probes — and optimizing the filter pass bands. The high degree of spectral precision ensures reproducible, reliable results, allowing for six or more distinct fluorescence channels. Coupled with the high out-of-band blocking (≥ OD6) and extremely steep transitions from high transmission to deep blocking, these filters deliver the highest available signal-to-noise ratios.

Different approaches have been used by manufacturers of PCR instruments to detect the fluorescence signals associated with the amplified genetic sequences. One variable is the light source. Most instruments use LEDs as light sources to “excite” the fluorophores, generating the fluorescence signal. However, some droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and chip-based digital PCR (cdPCR) instruments employ lasers as the fluorescence excitation light source.

Another variable is the mode of detection. A PCR instrument may use several individual filter sets, which are optimized for each combination of light source and fluorophore. Multi-band sets can greatly simplify the optical path, reducing the number of filters and therefore the physical space requirements, but they necessarily compromise optimal signal detection and separation. Trade-offs exist between cost, efficiency, reliability, precision, and sensitivity.

Below is an example of two different detection schemes used to detect the same four commonly used PCR fluorophores: FAM, HEX, ROX, and Cy5. The first scheme uses four single-band filter sets, each one optimized for a particular LED/fluorophore combination. The second uses one multi-band filter set with minimal filters and space requirements, but with compromised spectral efficiency. Other detection schemes may require only two fluorophores, while some may require six or more fluorescence channels.

A: Four individual narrow-band filter sets to detect nucleotides conjugated to FAM, HEX, ROX, or Cy5. Optimized for use with LEDs with output in the spectral regions of 465–475 nm, 525–535 nm, 560–580 nm, and 625–635 nm.

B: One single four-band filter set to detect nucleotides conjugated to FAM, HEX, ROX, or Cy5. Optimized for use with LEDs with output in the spectral regions of 465–475 nm, 520–535 nm, 580–595 nm, and 635–645 nm.

In both graphs, light gray shaded plots = excitation filter spectra, dark gray shaded plots = emission filter spectra, thick black traces = dichroic beamsplitter spectra.

In practice, qPCR provides relative quantification of the DNA, which is then calibrated to a standard curve for a quantitative result, whereas digital PCR provides absolute quantification of the DNA without the need for a reference curve or calibration. In addition to the diagnosis of infectious diseases, PCR is also used in many other areas of biology and medicine, in both clinical and research settings. These include prenatal testing and identifying patient DNA sequences associated with diseases such as cancer.

PCR is also used in some types of next-generation sequencing (NGS), identifying the genetic causes of disease, functional analysis of genes and gene expression, amplification of ancient DNA, tracing heredity, and forensics. Much of this work is done in basic biological research as well as applied research in disciplines as diverse as molecular biology, immunology, ecology, and agriculture.


Saiki RK, Scharf S, Faloona F, Mullis KB, Horn GT, Erlich HA, Arnheim N: Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science. 1985, 230: 1350-1354. 10.1126/science.2999980.

Arányi T, Váradi A, Simon I, Tusnády GE: The BiSearch web server. BMC Bioinforma. 2006, 7: 431-10.1186/1471-2105-7-431.

Qu W, Zhou Y, Zhang Y, Lu Y, Wang X, Zhao D, Yang Y, Zhang C: MFEprimer-2.0: a fast thermodynamics-based program for checking PCR primer specificity. Nucl Acids Res. 2012, 40: W205-W208. 10.1093/nar/gks552.

Bikandi J, San Millán R, Rementeria A, Garaizar J: In silico analysis of complete bacterial genomes: PCR,AFLP-PCR, and endonuclease restriction. Bioinformatics. 2004, 22: 798-799.

Benson DA, Cavanaugh M, Clark K, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Lipman DJ, Ostell J, Sayers EW: Genbank. Nucl Acids Res. 2012, 41: 36-42. Database issue

Roberts RJ, Vincze T, Posfai J, Macelis D: REBASE–a database for DNA restriction and modification: enzymes, genes and genomes. Nucl Acids Res. 2010, 38 (suppl 1): D234-D236.

Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, Lopez R, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG: Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics. 2007, 23: 2947-2948. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm404.

Untergasser A, Cutcutache I, Koressaar T, Ye J, Faircloth BC, Remm M, Rozen SG: Primer3-new capabilities and interfaces. Nucl Acids Res. 2012, 40: e115-10.1093/nar/gks596.


PCR - DNA Fingerprinting

Patrick has been teaching AP Biology for 14 years and is the winner of multiple teaching awards.

Because DNA is unique to an individual, we can use DNA fingerprinting to match genetic information with the person it came from. First, we use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to copy a tiny fragment of DNA so that there is enough to use in gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis uses gel and electricity to separate DNA fragments based on size, creating a distinct pattern that represents an individuals genetic information.

In shows like CSI, Miami, New York or wherever they often throw up the term DNA fingerprinting. One of the most common methods of DNA fingerprinting is something called PCR and what it's all about is using PCR and Gel Electrophoresis to examine DNA that's what they mean by DNA fingerprinting it's not really somebody's finger print. Now PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction which is a process for copying DNA and what it does is that it uses a special heat stable DNA Polymerase to copy a specific gene that you're interested in.

Now Gel Electrophoresis is this idea of using the fact that DNA is negatively charged to take your copy DNA put it into the agarose gel or some other materials and then you use electricity to drive that charged DNA through the gel and because that gel acts like an obstacle force it separates up the DNA fragments based on their size. Let's take a closer look at this YouTube video that shows the process known as PCR and we're inside of a test-tube filled with DNA from suspect if we're in CSI but all we're interested in, is this one particular section of DNA called the target sequence highlighted in green. Now this is going to take advantage of some of the steps involved in DNA replication the process of copying DNA.

Now normally with DNA replication we have to open up the helix, well to open that up in your cells you use an enzyme. In this test tube we're going to heat it up to 95 degrees Celsius which will separate the two sides, because that is almost boiling temperature. Now we cool it a little bit and allow a premade thing called a primer that tells which gene we're interested in copying to come in and so by cooling to right around 60 odd degrees or so that allows the primer to bind to our target sequence. Now the orange little things is that enzyme that can survive these high temperatures. And these green guys with sticks on them, those are the nucleotides the raw material for building our DNA copy. So the enzyme does what it's supposed to do, it finds the primer and says okay and it starts copying, and it keeps going.

And if you give it enough time it'll finish copying the entire molecule going this way and that one will copy going that way. Remember the two strands of DNA are anti-parallel, they go on opposite directions. But we only give it maybe 2 minutes at most and so at that point we then let it stop and we're at the end of cycle one. And so now that we're done with cycle one we can begin cycle two and it's the exact same thing, we heat it up to 95 degrees Celsius which is enough to separate our old, original template strands and our newly made copies. We cool it to 60 degrees Celsius that's cool enough for the primers that still are floating around in the test tube to bind to the beginning and end portions of our gene of interest. Then we go to the right temperature for the enzyme, the DNA polymerase it finds the primer and goes okay and it starts to copy and that's the end of cycle two.

At this point we have 4 copies now each of our copies contains information that's not part of our DNA but at the beginning of cycle 3 when we heat it up notice there's a couple of short little segments that are only the length of our gene of interest. We cool it, primer stick, the tag-primers comes along and binds it, it's called tag-primers that's short for thermokineses which is just the name of the creature came from but now we have a couple of our target molecules made. So we're ready to begin I believe this is cycle 4, so again we're going to heat it up, that' the end of cycle 3 so we heat it up for cycle 4, we separate our strands, we cool it enough for the primers to come on in, they bind to the beginning and end portions of our DNA gene tag polymerase does it's copying job and again we've made a number of copies of just the size that we want. Now original we had more of these longer ones but now we're starting to get more and more of the shorter ones.

As we begin cycle 5 we do the exact same thing over and over that's why it's called a chain reaction, each time we're doubling the number of our copies. And we just run it through, and this is such a simple process, this is one of the reasons why this when it was first invented people were going wow how did they think of this and there's a lot of a pack full of stories about how the guy actually did think of that, but he is niow a very rich man because everybody does this process. Now you can see we've got 22 molecules and that's after only 5 cycles. Each cycle takes maybe 90 seconds to couple of minutes, so you this 30 times and that takes you maybe 90 minutes and at the end of it you've got a large number, billions of copies of your target.

Now you can't see an individual molecule but you can see billions of molecules. Now how are we going to visualize this? How are we going to see how big that is? That's where the Gel Electrophoresis comes in. So we'll stop the YouTube and we'll go to a PowerPoint slide and let's imagine we've done a DNA fingerprint of 3 people and we're looking to see, we're not using this to identify who they are like you would see a side, but we're doing this trying to figure out what genes do they have? Let's suppose we've found a gene that if you have a longer version of it, you're more likely to get a particular cancer. If you have a short version of it, you're less likely to get a particular cancer.

Well we have patient 1, patient 2 and patient 3, now in this fourth row here what we have is pre made DNA so that we can use it like a ruler and what we do is we loaded our DNA samples into these holes here called the wells. We turn on the current, this end is negatively charged, this end is positively charged DNA has a negative charge to it so it is repelled by the negative side and goes zoom towards the positive end. And little guys one thousand base pairs long move a lot faster than the big 10,000 base pair of long pieces of DNA. Now this person here, we only see one band, this person here we see one band, this person we see two. Why is that? Oh yeah everybody has two copies of every gene, this person has two copies of the long version. Their homozygous for this particular condition.


Types of PCR

  1. Real-time PCR
  2. Quantitative real time PCR (Q-RT PCR)
  3. Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)
  4. Multiplex PCR
  5. Nested PCR
  6. Long-range PCR
  7. Single-cell PCR
  8. Fast-cycling PCR
  9. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP)
  10. Hot start PCR
  11. High-fidelity PCR
  12. In situ PCR
  13. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) PCR
  14. Asymmetric PCR
  15. Repetitive sequence-based PCR
  16. Overlap extension PCR
  17. Assemble PCR
  18. Intersequence-specific PCR(ISSR)
  19. Ligation-mediated PCR
  20. Methylation –specifin PCR
  21. Miniprimer PCR
  22. Solid phase PCR
  23. Touch down PCR, etc

SEE ALSO

Anthrax
Anthrax, Terrorist Use as a Biological Weapon
Anthrax Vaccine
Anthrax Weaponization
Biochemical Assassination Weapons
Biocontainment Laboratories
Biodetectors
Bio-Engineered Tissue Constructs
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
Biological Warfare
Biological Warfare, Advanced Diagnostics
Biological Weapons, Genetic Identification
CDC (United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Chemical and Biological Defense Information Analysis Center (CBIAC)
Microbiology: Applications to Espionage, Intelligence and Security
Microchip

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Polymerase Chain Reaction (Interactive)

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enables researchers to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in approximately two hours. This automated process bypasses the need to use bacteria for amplifying DNA.

This animation is featured in our "Spotlight Collection" on Polymerase Chain Reaction, along with video interviews with Kary Mullis, a 3D molecular animation of PCR, and several laboratory protocols.

This animation is also available as VIDEO .

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enables researchers to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in approximately two hours. This automated process bypasses the need to use bacteria for amplifying DNA. This animation is featured in our "Spotlight Collection" on Polymerase Chain Reaction, along with video interviews with Kary Mullis, a 3D molecular animation of PCR, and several laboratory protocols.

polymerase chain reaction,dna polymerase,dna sequence,automated process,chain reaction,bacteria


Watch the video: Year 1 - Materials and their Properties (July 2022).


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