Information

6: Blood Type - Biology

6: Blood Type - Biology



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

By Dr. Ingrid Waldron, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, CC-BY-NC 4.0.

In this minds-on, hands-on activity, students will learn about the genetics and immunobiology of the ABO blood type system. Students will use simple chemicals to simulate blood type tests and then carry out genetic analyses to determine whether hospital staff accidentally switched two babies born on the same day. This activity reinforces students' understanding that genes code for proteins which influence an organism’s characteristics and Punnett squares summarize how meiosis and fertilization result in inheritance. Students will also learn the concept of codominance.

  • 6.1: Blood Type Genetics Protocol
    Two couples had babies on the same day in the same hospital. Denise and Earnest had a girl, Tonja. Danielle and Michael had twins, a boy, Michael Jr., and a girl, Michelle. Danielle was convinced that there had been a mix-up and she had the wrong baby girl, since Michelle had light skin, while Michael Jr. and Tonja looked more like twins since they both had dark skin. To interpret the results of these tests, you will need to understand the genetics of blood types.
  • 6.2: Blood Type Genetics Teacher's Preparation Notes
    In this minds-on, hands-on activity, students will learn the genetics and immunobiology of the ABO blood type system. This activity reinforces students' understanding that genes code for proteins which influence an organism’s characteristics.

6: Blood Type - Biology

A blood type is a description an individual's characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. The two most important classifications to describe blood types in humans are ABO and Rh factor. There are 46 other known antigens, most of which are much rarer than ABO and Rh. Blood transfusions from incompatible groups can cause an immunological transfusion reaction , resulting in hemolytic anemia, renal failure, shock, and death.

Humans have the following blood types along with their respective antigens and antibodies:

  • Individuals with type A blood have red blood cells with antigen A on their surface and produce antibodies against antigen B in their blood serum. Using the blood compatibility chart below, for example, an A-negative person cannot receive blood except from another A-negative person or from an O-negative person.
  • Individuals with type B blood have the opposite arrangement, antigen B on the cell and produce antibodies to substance A in their serum.
  • Type AB people have red blood cells with both antigens A and B, and do not produce antibodies against either substance in their serum. Therefore, a person with type AB blood can safely receive any ABO type blood and is called a "universal receiver", but cannot donate blood except to the corresponding AB type people shown in the blood compatibility table below.
  • Type O people have red blood cells with neither antigen, but produce antibodies against both types of antigens. Because of this arrangement, type O can be safely given to any person with any ABO blood type. Hence, a person with type O blood is said to be a "universal donor" but cannot receive blood except from the corresponding O type people shown in the blood compatibility table below. Thus, for example, an O-negative person cannot receive blood except from another O-negative person.

Overall, the O blood type is the most common blood type in the world, although in some areas, such as Norway, the A group dominates. The A antigen is overall more common than the B antigen. Since the AB blood type requires the presence of both A and B antigens, the AB blood type is the rarest of the ABO blood types. There are known racial and geographic distributions of the ABO blood types [1].

The precise reason why people are born with antibodies against an antigen they have never been exposed to is unknown. It is believed that some bacterial antigens are similar enough to the A and B glycoproteins, and that antibodies created against the bacteria will react to ABO-incompatible blood cells.

Apart from on red blood cells, the ABO antigen is also expressed on the glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (vWF), which participates in hemostasis (control of bleeding). In fact, blood type O predisposes very slightly to bleeding, as vWF is degraded more rapidly.

Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930 for his work in discovering ABO blood types.


ABO Blood Types

While the genes for most human traits exist in two alternative forms or alleles, the genes that determine human ABO blood types exist as three alleles (A, B, O). These multiple alleles are passed from parent to offspring such that one allele is inherited from each parent. There are six possible genotypes (genetic makeup of inherited alleles) and four phenotypes (expressed physical trait) for human ABO blood types. The A and B alleles are dominant to the O allele. When both inherited alleles are O, the genotype is homozygous recessive and the blood type is O. When one of the inherited alleles is A and the other is B, the genotype is heterozygous and the blood type is AB. AB blood type is an example of co-dominance since both traits are expressed equally.

  • Type A: The genotype is either AA or AO. The antigens on the blood cell are A and the antibodies in the blood plasma are B.
  • Type B: The genotype is either BB or BO. The antigens on the blood cell are B and the antibodies in the blood plasma are A.
  • Type AB: The genotype is AB. The antigens on the blood cell are A and B. There are no A or B antibodies in the blood plasma.
  • Type O: The genotype is OO. There are no A or B antigens on the blood cell. The antibodies in the blood plasma are A and B.

Due to the fact that a person with one blood type produces antibodies against another blood type when exposed to it, it is important that individuals be given compatible blood types for transfusions. For example, a person with blood type B makes antibodies against blood type A. If this person is given blood of type A, his or her type A antibodies will bind to the antigens on the type A blood cells and initiate a cascade of events that will cause the blood to clump together. This can be deadly as the clumped cells can block blood vessels and prevent proper blood flow in the cardiovascular system. Since people with type AB blood have no A or B antibodies in their blood plasma, they can receive blood from persons with A, B, AB, or O type blood.


Blood Types

Human blood is grouped into four types: A, B, AB, and O. Each letter refers to a kind of antigen, or protein, on the surface of red blood cells. For example, the surface of red blood cells in Type A blood has antigens known as A-antigens.

The Rh Factor

Each blood type is also grouped by its Rhesus factor, or Rh factor. Blood is either Rh positive (Rh+) or Rh negative (Rh-). About 85% of Americans have Rh+ blood.

Rhesus refers to another type of antigen, or protein, on the surface of red blood cells. The name Rhesus comes from Rhesus monkeys, in which the protein was first discovered.

Why Know Your Blood Type

Knowing a person's exact blood typeis criticalwhen a blood transfusion is necessary. Duringa blood transfusion, a patient must receive a blood type that is compatible with his or her own. If the blood types are not compatible, red blood cells will clump together, making clots that can block blood vessels and cause death.

People with Type Onegative blood are considered to be universal donorsbecause theycan donateto people of any blood type. Individuals with Type AB+ blood areconsidered the universal recipientsbecause people with that type can receive any blood type.

Blood Type Chart: Below is a chart listing blood types, the percentage of Americans with that type, and the types they can donate to.

Blood typePercent of Americans with this typeWho can receive this type?
O+37O+, A+, B+, AB+
O-6All blood types
A+34A+, AB+
A-6A+, A-, AB+, AB-
B+10B+, AB+
B-2B+, B-, AB+, AB-
AB+4AB+
AB-1AB+, AB-

Did You Know?

  • Blood type is inherited, just like eye color.
  • Certain blood types are more common in certain countries. In China, over 99 percentof the population has Rh+ blood.
  • Different kinds of animals have different kinds of blood. Dogs have 4 blood types cats have 11 cows have about 800.
  • Some people think blood type tells about personality. Legend has it that Type A is calm and trustworthy Type B is creative and excitable Type AB is thoughtful and emotional and Type O is a confident leader.
  • In Japan, the idea of blood type as personality type is so popular that Japanese ask "What's your blood type?" about as often as Americans ask "What's your sign?"

Blood Transfusions

A blood transfusion is the transfer of blood from one person to another. Blood that is lost through an injury, an illness or a surgery can be replaced through transfusion. Aside from transferring blood as a whole, parts of blood, such as red blood cells, plateletsor plasma can also be transferred to individuals.

Donor blood is tested for HIV, hepatitis, syphilis, West Nile virusand other diseases before transfusion. According to the Centers for Disease Control, there are more than 9.5 million blood donors in the United States and an estimated 5 million patients who receive blood annually, resulting in a total of 14.6 million transfusions per year.

The American Association of Blood Banks maintains a databaseof locations for individuals to donate blood. Many blood donation centers are run by the Red Cross.

You May Also Be Searching For

Or, if you're interested in other health subjects, you might be interested in our list of the top air purifiers.


Contents

According to a precise set of rules laid down in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), the scientific name of every taxon is almost always based on one particular specimen, or in some cases specimens. Types are of great significance to biologists, especially to taxonomists. Types are usually physical specimens that are kept in a museum or herbarium research collection, but failing that, an image of an individual of that taxon has sometimes been designated as a type. [3] Describing species and appointing type specimens is part of scientific nomenclature and alpha taxonomy.

When identifying material, a scientist attempts to apply a taxon name to a specimen or group of specimens based on his or her understanding of the relevant taxa [ clarification needed ] [ citation needed ] , based on (at least) having read the type description(s) [ citation needed ] , preferably also based on an examination of all the type material of all of the relevant taxa. If there is more than one named type that all appear to be the same taxon, then the oldest name takes precedence, and is considered to be the correct name of the material in hand. If on the other hand the taxon appears never to have been named at all, then the scientist or another qualified expert picks a type specimen and publishes a new name and an official description. [ citation needed ]

This process is crucial to biological taxonomy. People's ideas of how living things should be grouped change over time. How do we know that what we call "Canis lupus" is the same thing, or approximately the same thing, as what they will be calling "Canis lupus" in 200 years' time? It is possible to check this because there is a particular wolf specimen preserved in Sweden [4] [ clarification needed ] and everyone who uses that name [ clarification needed ] [ citation needed ] – no matter what else they may mean by it – will include that particular specimen. [ clarification needed ] [ citation needed ]

Depending on the nomenclature code applied to the organism in question, a type can be a specimen, a culture, an illustration, or (under the bacteriological code) a description. Some codes consider a subordinate taxon to be the type, but under the botanical code the type is always a specimen or illustration.

For example, in the research collection of the Natural History Museum in London, there is a bird specimen numbered 1886.6.24.20. This is a specimen of a kind of bird commonly known as the spotted harrier, which currently bears the scientific name Circus assimilis. This particular specimen is the holotype for that species the name Circus assimilis refers, by definition, to the species of that particular specimen. That species was named and described by Jardine and Selby in 1828, and the holotype was placed in the museum collection so that other scientists might refer to it as necessary.

Note that at least for type specimens there is no requirement for a "typical" individual to be used. Genera and families, particularly those established by early taxonomists, tend to be named after species that are more "typical" for them, but here too this is not always the case and due to changes in systematics cannot be. Hence, the term name-bearing type or onomatophore is sometimes used, to denote the fact that biological types do not define "typical" individuals or taxa, but rather fix a scientific name to a specific operational taxonomic unit. Type specimens are theoretically even allowed to be aberrant or deformed individuals or color variations, though this is rarely chosen to be the case, as it makes it hard to determine to which population the individual belonged. [1] [2] [5]

The usage of the term type is somewhat complicated by slightly different uses in botany and zoology. In the PhyloCode, type-based definitions are replaced by phylogenetic definitions.

In some older taxonomic works the word "type" has sometimes been used differently. The meaning was similar in the first Laws of Botanical Nomenclature, [6] [7] but has a meaning closer to the term taxon in some other works: [8]

Ce seul caractère permet de distinguer ce type de toutes les autres espèces de la section. … Après avoir étudié ces diverses formes, j'en arrivai à les considérer comme appartenant à un seul et même type spécifique.

Translation: This single character permits [one to] distinguish this type from all other species of the section . After studying the diverse forms, I came to consider them as belonging to the one and the same specific type.

In botanical nomenclature, a type (typus, nomenclatural type), "is that element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached." (article 7.2) [9] In botany a type is either a specimen or an illustration. A specimen is a real plant (or one or more parts of a plant or a lot of small plants), dead and kept safe, "curated", in a herbarium (or the equivalent for fungi). Examples of where an illustration may serve as a type include:

  • A detailed drawing, painting, etc., depicting the plant, from the early days of plant taxonomy. A dried plant was difficult to transport and hard to keep safe for the future many specimens from the early days of botany have since been lost or damaged. Highly skilled botanical artists were sometimes employed by a botanist to make a faithful and detailed illustration. Some such illustrations have become the best record and have been chosen to serve as the type of a taxon.
  • A detailed picture of something that can be seen only through a microscope. A tiny "plant" on a microscope slide makes for a poor type: the microscope slide may be lost or damaged, or it may be very difficult to find the "plant" in question among whatever else is on the microscope slide. An illustration makes for a much more reliable type (Art 37.5 of the Vienna Code, 2006).

Note that a type does not determine the circumscription of the taxon. For example, the common dandelion is a controversial taxon: some botanists consider it to consist of over a hundred species, and others regard it as a single species. The type of the name Taraxacum officinale is the same whether the circumscription of the species includes all those small species (Taraxacum officinale is a "big" species) or whether the circumscription is limited to only one small species among the other hundred (Taraxacum officinale is a "small" species). The name Taraxacum officinale is the same and the type of the name is the same, but the extent of what the name actually applies to varies greatly. Setting the circumscription of a taxon is done by a taxonomist in a publication.

  1. Only a species or an infraspecific taxon can have a type of its own. For most new taxa (published on or after 1 January 2007, article 37) at these ranks a type should not be an illustration.
  2. A genus has the same type as that of one of its species (article 10).
  3. A family has the same type as that of one of its genera (article 10).

The ICN provides a listing of the various kinds of type (article 9 and the Glossary), [9] the most important of which is the holotype. These are

  • holotype – the single specimen or illustration that the author(s) clearly indicated to be the nomenclatural type of a name
  • lectotype – a specimen or illustration designated from the original material as the nomenclatural type when there was no holotype specified or the holotype has been lost or destroyed
  • isotype – a duplicate of the holotype
  • syntype – any specimen (or illustration) cited in the original description when there is no holotype, or any one of two or more specimens simultaneously designated as types
  • paratype – any specimen (or illustration) cited in the original description that is not the holotype nor an isotype, nor one of the syntypes
  • neotype – a specimen or illustration selected to serve as nomenclatural type if no material from the original description is available
  • epitype – a specimen or illustration selected to serve as an interpretative type, usually when another kind of type does not show the critical features needed for identification

Note that the word "type" appears in botanical literature as a part of some older terms that have no status under the ICN: for example a clonotype.

In zoological nomenclature, the type of a species or subspecies is a specimen, or series of specimens. The type of a genus or subgenus is a species. The type of a suprageneric taxon (e.g., family, etc.) is a genus. Names higher than superfamily rank do not have types. A "name-bearing type" is a specimen or image that "provides the objective standard of reference whereby the application of the name of a nominal taxon can be determined."

Definitions Edit

  • A type specimen is a vernacular term (not a formally defined term) typically used for an individual or fossil that is any of the various name-bearing types for a species. For example, the type specimen for the species Homo neanderthalensis was the specimen "Neanderthal-1" discovered by Johann Karl Fuhlrott in 1856 at Feldhofer in the Neander Valley in Germany, consisting of a skullcap, thigh bones, part of a pelvis, some ribs, and some arm and shoulder bones. There may be more than one type specimen, but there is (at least in modern times) only one holotype.
  • A type species is the nominal species that is the name-bearing type of a nominal genus or subgenus.
  • A type genus is the nominal genus that is the name-bearing type of a nominal family-group taxon.
  • The type series are all those specimens included by the author in a taxon's formal description, unless the author explicitly or implicitly excludes them as part of the series.

Use of type specimens Edit

Although in reality biologists may examine many specimens (when available) of a new taxon before writing an official published species description, nonetheless, under the formal rules for naming species (the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature), a single type must be designated, as part of the published description.

Zoological collections are maintained by universities and museums. Ensuring that types are kept in good condition and made available for examination by taxonomists are two important functions of such collections. And, while there is only one holotype designated, there can be other "type" specimens, the following of which are formally defined:

Holotype Edit

When a single specimen is clearly designated in the original description, this specimen is known as the holotype of that species. The holotype is typically placed in a major museum, or similar well-known public collection, so that it is freely available for later examination by other biologists.

Paratype Edit

When the original description designated a holotype, there may be additional specimens that the author designates as additional representatives of the same species, termed paratypes. These are not name-bearing types.

Allotype Edit

An allotype is a specimen of the opposite sex to the holotype, designated from among paratypes. The word was also formerly used for a specimen that shows features not seen in the holotype of a fossil. [11] The term is not regulated by the ICZN.

Neotype Edit

A neotype is a specimen later selected to serve as the single type specimen when an original holotype has been lost or destroyed or where the original author never cited a specimen.

Syntype Edit

A syntype is any one of two or more specimens that is listed in a species description where no holotype was designated historically, syntypes were often explicitly designated as such, and under the present ICZN this is a requirement, but modern attempts to publish species description based on syntypes are generally frowned upon by practicing taxonomists, and most are gradually being replaced by lectotypes. Those that still exist are still considered name-bearing types.

Lectotype Edit

A lectotype is a specimen later selected to serve as the single type specimen for species originally described from a set of syntypes. In zoology, a lectotype is a kind of name-bearing type. When a species was originally described on the basis of a name-bearing type consisting of multiple specimens, one of those may be designated as the lectotype. Having a single name-bearing type reduces the potential for confusion, especially considering that it is not uncommon for a series of syntypes to contain specimens of more than one species.

A notable example is the suggestion that Carl Linnaeus should constitute the lectotype for the species Homo sapiens. [12]

Paralectotype Edit

A paralectotype is any additional specimen from among a set of syntypes, after a lectotype has been designated from among them. These are not name-bearing types. [13]

Hapantotype Edit

A special case in Protistans where the type consists of two or more specimens of "directly related individuals representing distinct stages in the life cycle" these are collectively treated as a single entity, and lectotypes cannot be designated from among them.

Iconotype Edit

An illustration on which a new species or subspecies was based. For instance, the Burmese python, Python bivittatus, is one of many species that are based on illustrations by Albertus Seba (1734). [14] [15]

Ergatotype Edit

An ergatotype is a specimen selected to represent a worker member in hymenopterans which have polymorphic castes. [11]

Alternatives to preserved specimens Edit

Type illustrations have also been used by zoologists, as in the case of the Réunion parakeet, which is known only from historical illustrations and descriptions. [16] : 24

Recently, some species have been described where the type specimen was released alive back into the wild, such as the Bulo Burti boubou (a bushshrike), described as Laniarius liberatus, in which the species description included DNA sequences from blood and feather samples. Assuming there is no future question as to the status of such a species, the absence of a type specimen does not invalidate the name, but it may be necessary in the future to designate a neotype for such a taxon, should any questions arise. However, in the case of the bushshrike, ornithologists have argued that the specimen was a rare and hitherto unknown color morph of a long-known species, using only the available blood and feather samples. While there is still some debate on the need to deposit actual killed individuals as type specimens, it can be observed that given proper vouchering and storage, tissue samples can be just as valuable should disputes about the validity of a species arise.

Formalisation of the type system Edit

The various types listed above are necessary [ citation needed ] because many species were described one or two centuries ago, when a single type specimen, a holotype, was often not designated. Also, types were not always carefully preserved, and intervening events such as wars and fires have resulted in destruction of original type material. The validity of a species name often rests upon the availability of original type specimens or, if the type cannot be found, or one has never existed, upon the clarity of the description.

The ICZN has existed only since 1961, when the first edition of the Code was published. The ICZN does not always demand a type specimen for the historical validity of a species, and many "type-less" species do exist. The current edition of the Code, Article 75.3, prohibits the designation of a neotype unless there is "an exceptional need" for "clarifying the taxonomic status" of a species (Article 75.2).

There are many other permutations and variations on terms using the suffix "-type" (e.g., allotype, cotype, topotype, generitype, isotype, isoneotype, isolectotype, etc.) but these are not formally regulated by the Code, and a great many are obsolete and/or idiosyncratic. However, some of these categories can potentially apply to genuine type specimens, such as a neotype e.g., isotypic/topotypic specimens are preferred to other specimens, when they are available at the time a neotype is chosen (because they are from the same time and/or place as the original type).

The term fixation is used by the Code for the declaration of a name-bearing type, whether by original or subsequent designation.

Type species Edit

Each genus must have a designated type species (the term "genotype" was once used for this but has been abandoned because the word has become much better known as the term for a different concept in genetics). The description of a genus is usually based primarily on its type species, modified and expanded by the features of other included species. The generic name is permanently associated with the name-bearing type of its type species.

Ideally, a type species best exemplifies the essential characteristics of the genus to which it belongs, but this is subjective and, ultimately, technically irrelevant, as it is not a requirement of the Code. If the type species proves, upon closer examination, to belong to a pre-existing genus (a common occurrence), then all of the constituent species must be either moved into the pre-existing genus, or disassociated from the original type species and given a new generic name the old generic name passes into synonymy and is abandoned unless there is a pressing need to make an exception (decided case-by-case, via petition to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature). [ citation needed ]

Type genus Edit

A type genus is that genus from which the name of a family or subfamily is formed. As with type species, the type genus is not necessarily the most representative, but is usually the earliest described, largest or best known genus. It is not uncommon for the name of a family to be based upon the name of a type genus that has passed into synonymy the family name does not need to be changed in such a situation.


6: Blood Type - Biology

Early experiments with human blood transfusion often resulted in the death of the patient for unknown reasons. In 1901, it was discovered that there were three* blood types, A, B, and O, and that mixing blood from different types caused an immune response that resulted in clumping.

*Type AB is rare and was discovered later.

ABO Blood Type: An individual's red blood cells will contain proteins of type A, or B, or both, or neither. The body produces antibodies that will attack any foreign type. Alleles of types I A and I B are dominant over type i .

Rh Factor: The Rh factor, the second most important blood group system after the ABO blood group system, was first discovered in rhesis monkeys. The Rh factor is inherited independently from the ABO blood type. Genotypes for the Rh factor are +/+, +/-, and -/-. People who are +/+ or +/- possess the Rh(D) antigen and test as Rh positive. People who are -/- do not posess the Rh(D) antigen and test as Rh negative. About 15% of Americans are Rh negative.

Rh Sensitization: One interesting medical scenario involves an Rh negative mother who carries an Rh positive baby. (The baby of an Rh positive father and an Rh negative mother can be +/- or -/-.) If the baby is +/-, the first pregnancy causes Rh sensitization in the mother, because she is exposed to foreign proteins and builds up antibodies against them. Future pregnancies can be increasingly difficult, as the mother's antibodies attack the baby.

ABO Type Combined % Rh Factor % in US Population
O 44 + 37.4
- 6.6
A 42 + 35.7
- 6.3
B 10 + 8.5
- 1.5
AB 4 + 3.4
- 0.6

Donors and Recipients: Because the red blood cells of blood Type O negative people contain no proteins that could be rejected, Type O negative is referred to as the universal donor . Because red blood cells of Type AB positive have all possible antigens (proteins), none will be seen as foreign so Type AB positive is the universal recipient . Since the plasma (the liquid part of the blood, from which the red and white cells have been removed by centrifuging) of Type AB positive people contains no antibodies, the plasma of Type AB positive donors is universal. In an emergency, where there isn't time to do a blood type test, knowing who is a universal donor could save lives.


Interesting Facts about B Positive Blood Type

1. Origin and type of identity

Type of identity – “Nomad”. Approximately 10 to 20% of all people living in the world have this blood type, which is an interesting fact about B+ blood type.

The blood type appeared more than 10 000 years ago as a result of mixture of different populations and adaptation to climate. These were the times when people started to actively move to and inhabit northern regions in different parts of the world.

2. Traits of character

Main: flexibility, calmness, kindness, purposefulness.

People who have this blood type are open and optimistic individuals who set up high standards in terms of themselves and those who surround them. Comfort doesn’t mean much to them and they hate routine. It kills them slowly. These people are adventurous and they will never miss out on the opportunity for a change in their lives.

They successfully live below their means and take pride in being strong, independent individuals. (The thing to remember is to not be too independent. If you find yourself lonely and with no one to keep you company then it’s probably your focus on independence that is to be blamed for that) One more thing that should be kept in mind is that these people can’t stand injustice. They will rather put an end to the relationships than continue communicating with those who don’t respect them.

Even though these people are open and kind, building relationships is sometimes hard for them. Why? Because they keep people they don’t know well at a distance. They don’t open up until they start trusting a person. Once this happens, you get a devoted friend for life.

Their gift is creative thinking that allows them to look at a situation from different angles and find an unusual solution to the problem at hand.

3. Health

An interesting fact about B+ blood type is that people of this blood type have a strong immune system and stable nervous system. They are not likely to suffer from the diseases of the digestive system because it can adapt to the changes in diet rather fast.

  • Diabetes (I type)
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Autoimmune diseases (lupus, Lou Gehrig’s disease, multiple sclerosis)

4. Recommended diet

People of this blood type can eat whatever they want since there are no limitations restricting them to any particular type of a diet. However, they are recommended to avoid eating canned products and drinking too much alcohol.

  • Fish
  • Mutton
  • Dairy products
  • Vegetables (greens, carrot, tomatoes etc.)
  • Rice

They are recommended to replace coffee with tea and add olive oil to the meals they eat.

Eating habits are seen as one of the most significant aspects influencing health and body weight. If your blood type is B+ and you want to lose weight, it will be better to exclude corn, any type of fried dishes, nuts and bread from your diet.

5. Sport and exercising

In modern world stress has become a number one enemy. Some people are more prone to stress while others are more skillful in resisting it. Exercises and physical activity are proved to be the most effective ways of beating stress.

6. Blood compatibility

Of course, there may be exceptions to the general “rules” mentioned above. Being a B Positive Blood Type Person doesn’t necessarily mean that you possess all the personality traits that people of this blood type share or that you’ll suffer from a particular disease in future.

However, remembering these facts can help you to better take care of your health and avoid unnecessary health problems. Taking advantage of the strongest personality traits you can build deeper relationships with people and achieve bigger success in career.

I hope that this article on B+ Blood Type Facts was helpful! If you are interested, visit the Health Facts Page!


Blood Type Diet Debunked

A systematic review finds no evidence to support the notion that people should choose diets based on their blood type.

Transcript

Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

It was Adolf Hitler who coined a propaganda technique he called, “the big lie,” arguing that people may be more likely to believe “colossal untruths,” because “they would not believe that others would have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously.” So, “in the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility.”

The book Eat Right for Your Type makes the astounding claim that people with different blood types should eat different foods. Type Os are supposed to be like the hunter, and eat a lot of meat, whereas people with type-A blood are supposed to eat less. In one of the world’s most prestigious nutrition journals, a systematic review of the evidence supporting blood-type diets was published. They didn’t find any.

“Diets based on the ABO blood group system have been promoted over the past decade…[but] the evidence to support the effectiveness of [such] diets [had evidently] not previously been assessed in the scientific literature.” Actually, in the Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, there were a number of papers that came out of a day-long scientific seminar held by the Norwegian Society for Nutrition. Hard to believe they would even take the time, but evidently 40,000 copies of the book had been sold in Norway, and so, good for them. They sought to determine “Blood type diets: visionary science or nonsense?” And, they concluded: nonsense.

What was so outrageous is that “[t]he blood-type diet is promoted and justified [in the book] by [supposed] scientific arguments,” yet the author takes “no pains to prove” his ideas—just presenting them “simply as facts,” taking advantage of people’s ignorance of biology.

His arguments sound scientific, and he uses lots of big words. But, he displays a fundamental misunderstanding of the science, describing the book’s understanding of some basic tenets of blood-type biology as “absurd.” “There should be no doubt that [had the author]…practiced in Norway [as opposed to Connecticut], he would be in violation of the “so-called Quack [Law].”

The book cites the work of blood-type biochemists, but if you ask the actual experts, as scientists, they say they obviously have to keep an open mind, but not so open your brains fall out: “[I]t must be stated that an ‘open mind’ should not extend to some of the non-scientific literature where there are books on the ABO [blood-type] system of pure fantasy. The most recent and incredulous of these claims [that] individuals of each ABO blood type must subscribe to a [particular] diet.”

I don’t know how researchers have the patience to read these popular press books, but it can “lead to an appreciation of the ridiculous aspects of the many ignorant and preposterous claims.”

“So, what should the overall assessment of [this] work be?” The nicest thing you can say about the book is: he does have a good “imagination.”

Is it any worse than people who believe their fate is “determined by” the stars, though? Well, yes, because astrologists aren’t telling a third of the population to go out and eat organ meats.

The diet is not as bad as some. “[P]ositive results reported by [some] individuals may well be due to a general improvement [in health] in diet and lifestyle (less fat and sugar, more fruits and vegetables, less smoking, [and] more exercise).” Look, anything that gets people to eat fewer doughnuts.

But though this may get lost a bit in translation, a professor of laboratory medicine at the Norwegian University of Science’s analysis concluded that the author’s “learning must be considered junk and without scientific foundation.”

What did the new review find? They sifted through over a thousand papers that might shed some light on the issue, and “[n]one of the studies showed an association between…blood type diets and health-related outcomes.” They conclude that “there is currently no evidence that an adherence to blood type diets will provide health benefits, despite the substantial presence and perseverance of blood type diets within the health industry.”

The author responded to the review on his website, saying that there’s “good science behind the blood type diet, just like there was good science behind Einstein’s mathematical calculations,” and that if blood-type diets were just tested in the right way, just like Einstein’s E=MC 2 , he would be vindicated—complaining that “you don’t see any studies on blood types and nutrition [because of] [l]ittle…interest and…available money.” He’s sold over 𔄟 million” books! Why doesn’t he fund his own studies? That’s what the Atkins Corporation did.

And, the answer is: he has! In 1996, he wrote, “I am beginning the eighth year of a ten-year trial on reproductive cancers, using the Blood Type Diets. By the time I release the results in another 2 years, I expect to make it scientifically demonstrable that the Blood Type Diet plays a role in cancer remission.” Okay, so that would be 1998, and the results? Still not released, 16 years later.

Clever tactic, though, saying you’re just about to publish, banking that nobody would actually follow up. So, in his sequel, he said he was “currently conducting a twelve-week randomized, double-blind, controlled trial implementing the Blood Type Diet, to determine its effects on the outcomes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.” That was ten years ago.

As my Norwegian colleagues bemoaned, “it is difficult not to perceive the whole thing as a crass fraud.”


Blood Types

Blood types are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens – substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Since some antigens can trigger a patient's immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. Do you know what blood type is safe for you if you need a transfusion?

There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells. In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a protein called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent (–), creating the 8 most common blood types (A+, A-, B+, B-, O+, O-, AB+, AB-).

Blood Types and Transfusion

There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion. The right blood transfusion can mean the difference between life and death.

Every 2 seconds someone in the US needs a blood transfusion.

Use the interactive graphic below to learn more about matching blood types for transfusions.

Also, Rh-negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh-positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse.

  • The universal red cell donor has Type O negative blood.
  • The universal plasma donor has Type AB blood.

There are more than 600 other known antigens, the presence or absence of which creates "rare blood types." Certain blood types are unique to specific ethnic or racial groups. That’s why an African-American blood donation may be the best hope for the needs of patients with sickle cell disease, many of whom are of African descent. Learn about blood and diversity.

What Is A Universal Blood Donor?

Universal donors are those with an O negative blood type. Why? O negative blood can be used in transfusions for any blood type.

Type O is routinely in short supply and in high demand by hospitals – both because it is the most common blood type and because type O negative blood is the universal blood type needed for emergency transfusions and for immune deficient infants.

Approximately 45 percent of Caucasians are type O (positive or negative), but 51 percent of African-Americans and 57 percent of Hispanics are type O. Minority and diverse populations, therefore, play a critical role in meeting the constant need for blood.

Types O negative and O positive are in high demand. Only 7% of the population are O negative. However, the need for O negative blood is the highest because it is used most often during emergencies. The need for O+ is high because it is the most frequently occurring blood type (37% of the population).

The universal red cell donor has Type O negative blood. The universal plasma donor has Type AB blood. For more about plasma donation, visit the plasma donation facts.


CONCLUSION

There is compelling evidence that risks for disease are related to the chemistry of blood, including the blood group classification, the structures of A, B, H, and Lewis determinants, and the enzymes which induce these structures. How the blood group and surface antigens play a role in disease is only beginning to be investigated with sophisticated modern technologies, including recent studies of microbiome and metabolome associations with blood groups. ABO antigens provide glycoproteins that are degraded by microbes in the mucosal layer of the intestines. A small Finnish study recently demonstrated that the blood group of the host has a statistically significant association with the composition of the microbiome. Here, the overall profile of the mucosal microbes as well as the relative proportions of the major bacterial groups were reported to be different when the B antigen was present, as it would be in blood group B or AB individuals. 72 This study did not distinguish between secretors and non-secretors status, but it is known that secretor status strongly influences the composition of the human intestinal microbiome. 73

Because we know that the blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures, it is reasonable to believe that differences in biochemical profiles of individuals may also be related to differences in blood type, antigens, and secretor status. Metabolomics studies have revealed differences in the biochemical profiles based on ethnicity, 74, 75 and blood type is also known to be distributed differently among different ethnicities. 76 Recent work by Sumner and colleagues at the NIH Common Fund Eastern Regional Metabolomics Resource Core have demonstrated differences in the metabotypes of individuals based on blood groups. 77 While research on the metabotypes of blood types and the influence on disease and health has just started, this area of research can greatly contribute to the identification of targets for the development of nutritional intervention strategies, as well as the identification of druggable targets for drug discovery.

Metabolomics in Antigen Research

Metabolomics is a robust analytical tool that identifies and quantifies the small metabolites produced in living, biological systems, speeds up identification of metabolic biomarkers that reflect the physiological status of cells, and reveals metabolic mechanisms of cellular activity. 78 In humans, it has been used to distinguish the different metabolic profiles of normal and sickle cell erythrocytes, 79 and to study the mechanisms and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis 80 xenobiotic toxicity liver, breast, colon, and prostate cancer inflammatory bowel disease liver disease and Alzheimer’s disease. 81 Metabolomics has also proven invaluable for understanding the pathogenesis of Barth Syndrome 82 metabolic consequences of chronic inflammation 83 and metabolic dysregulation, molecular complexities, and nutrient imbalances behind T2DM. 84 There is now compelling evidence that human commensal microbiota play a significant role in health and disease the microbiome has the ability to generate biochemical compounds in sufficient quantities to be detected in blood metabolites, 85 and in turn, the composition of the microbiome can be quite affected by dietary changes. 72, 84 Of more significance is the finding that blood group antigens and secretor status are genetically determined host factors that influence the composition of the human intestinal microbiome. 72, 73 The associations between blood groups and diseases are well documented the use of metabolomics in blood group antigen research would finally reveal the complex mechanisms and processes involved. Metabolomics has great potential to streamline diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and prevention of disease, and will greatly simplify collaboration between the fields of clinical research, drug development, personalized medicine, and personalized nutrition. 78, 86