Information

1.13: Introduction to Plant Morphology - Biology

1.13: Introduction to Plant Morphology - Biology


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the morphological characteristics of herbaceous and woody stems.

Plant identification depends on knowledge of taxonomy and understanding of stem, leaf, bud, flower and fruit morphology. Morphology is the Greek word for “the study of shape,” and plant morphology is the study of the external plant structures and shapes. While the original botanical resource, Species plantarum was published by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753, one of the most comprehensive references currently available for plant morphology is Huxley, A. (ed.) The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. London, Macmillan Press, 1992.

A working knowledge of morphological descriptors for plant identification enables the use of dichotomous keys as well as herbarium samples and digital databases. A herbarium is a collection of pressed and dried plants that is systematically arranged for research and plant identification purposes. Information on the procedure for creating herbarium samples is available at this link to Herbarium: How to Press Plants [New Tab][1]

A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here: https://kpu.pressbooks.pub/plant-identification/?p=131

Herbarium: How to Press Plants https://youtu.be/USltmLxNt80

An example of an institutional herbaria is available at this link to the University of British Columbia Beaty Biodiversity Museum [New Tab].[2]

Digital databases and apps typically use the morphology of stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit to identify unknown plants . Some regional databases are available at these links to the Kwantlen Polytechnic University Plant Database [New Tab][3], Oregon State University Landscape Plants [New Tab][4], and University of British Columbia E-Flora BC [New Tab][5].

Stem Morphology

A morphological description usually starts with the structure of a plant. Plant stems with vascular tissue support leaves and reproductive structures such as flowers. Depending on the type of plant, stems may be woody or herbaceous, and solid or hollow in cross section.

Herbaceous (non-woody) stems with solid or hollow stems are typical of forbs (eudicots), grasses, and grass-like plants called rushes and sedges (monocots). The stems are generally filled with a soft spongy tissue called pith, that stores and transports nutrients. The culm (stem) of a grass plant (Poa spp.) is hollow with pith only at the jointed nodes. The base of the leaf circles around the stem forming a series of overlapping sheaths. Sedges (Carex spp.), differ from grasses and rushes in that the stems are triangular (V-shaped) in cross section at the base (“sedges have edges”), have a solid pith, and are not jointed. Rushes differ from grasses in that stems are not jointed (no nodes) and are typically filled with pith. Some rush genera, such as Luzula spp. can look very grass-like with leaf blades while in Juncus spp. the leaves may be reduced to just a rounded sheath. Descriptions of morphological characteristics are illustrated at this link to Grasses, Sedges and Rushes [New Tab][6].

In contrast to herbaceous stems that die at the end of the growing season, woody stems are permanent structures that grow in length and girth (diameter) each year and produce bark as a protective covering. The general features of the woody stem illustrated in Figure 13.1 will be characteristic for a particular plant species.

Figure 13.1 External features of a woody stem

The shape, size and arrangement of buds and lenticels (small openings in the outer bark that allow for the exchange of gases), are often identifiable in trees and shrubs, as shown in Figure 13.2 and Figure 13.3. The thickness, texture, pattern, and color of the bark of many woody plants is both a distinctive species characteristic for identification and an attractive feature for landscape use.

Figure 13.2 Prunus buds

Figure 13.3 Prunus bark and lenticels

Examples of the morphology of herbaceous stems and woody stems and buds are available at this link to Stems – External KPU.ca/Hort [New Tab][7].

Stem modifications include underground, above ground, and aerial structures that are characteristic to different plant species. Underground structures for spreading and food storage include rhizomes, corms, tubers, and bulbs. Stolons, runners, suckers, and offsets that grow almost parallel to or just above the ground enable plant spread. Aerial modifications include stem tendrils and thorns for climbing and protection. In xeric (dry) conditions, the stem may take over photosynthesis in order to reduce water loss from leaves (Cactus spp.). Examples of different types of stem modifications are shown at this link to Modifications – Stem KPU.ca/Hort [New Tab][8].

True or False Search the plant names available at this link to the KPU Plant Database [New Tab][9]

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
kpu.pressbooks.pub/plant-identification/?p=131

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
kpu.pressbooks.pub/plant-identification/?p=131



Plant Morphology deals with plant form, including its development and evolution. It can be defined in a narrow sense as referring only to external form, in contrast to anatomy that refers to internal form. But plant morphology can also be defined in a wide sense that includes both internal and external form at all levels of organization from the molecular and cellular level to the organismal level (Sattler 1978, Introduction).

Since molecular genetics has become fashionable, plant morphology has been increasingly neglected and to some extent it has been integrated into evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) . Nonetheless, plant morphology remains fundamentally relevant to nearly all fields of plant biology such as molecular genetics, physiology, ecology, evolutionary biology and systematics. In these fields morphological concepts and/or theories are used or implied. Therefore, to some extent these fields are based on or reflect morphology (Kaplan 2001, Sattler and Rutishauser 1997 ).

Contrary to a widespread misconception, plant morphology is not a finished science, but, like any science, open to constant innovation. Such innovation may concern morphological details, concepts, theories, and even the disciplinary matrix (or paradigm). My contributions to plant morphology have been empirical and theoretical, involving a revision of some of the most basic assumptions and tenets in the disciplinary matrix of plant morphology.

With many undergraduate and graduate students, technicians, postdoctoral fellows, research associates, and colleagues I carried out research in plant morphology for nearly forty years in the second half of the 20 th century (see my Publications ). One major focus of this research has been the dynamic form continuum in plants, especially flowering plants. A review of many aspects of this research can be found in my book chapter entitled &ldquoHomology, homeosis and process morphology in plants&rdquo (Sattler 1994). What follows is a general discussion of fundamental issues in plant morphology. References to our contributions can be found in the list of my publications . For a tour through what I consider some of my most important publications see my essay The Evolution of my Phytomorphological Research in my Publications and Plant Evo-Devo (Evolutionary Developmental Biology) .


Medical Technology Major (MEDT)

Major Advisor: Brandy Roberts, Dir. of Undergraduate Advising
Office: 117 Harned Hall

Medical technologists are prepared for positions in hospital laboratories, clinics, research laboratories, the Public Health Service industry, and in various local, state and federal health organizations.

The medical technology curriculum leading to the Bachelor of Science degree from Mississippi State University includes three years of study at Mississippi State University and one year of study in a hospital School of Medical Technology accredited by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences. Admission to the hospital school is competitive. A student who has satisfactorily completed the three years on the campus and has gained admission to a hospital school will register for the hospital phase and will be considered to be enrolled at Mississippi State during the final year of study. Graduates are prepared for certification by several national agencies.


Introduction

The gene is the physical unit of inheritance, and genes are arranged in a linear order on chromosomes. Chromosome behavior and interaction during meiosis explain, at a cellular level, inheritance patterns that we observe in populations. Genetic disorders involving alterations in chromosome number or structure may have dramatic effects and can prevent a fertilized egg from developing.

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

    If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:

  • Use the information below to generate a citation. We recommend using a citation tool such as this one.
    • Authors: Mary Ann Clark, Matthew Douglas, Jung Choi
    • Publisher/website: OpenStax
    • Book title: Biology 2e
    • Publication date: Mar 28, 2018
    • Location: Houston, Texas
    • Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/1-introduction
    • Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/13-introduction

    © Jan 7, 2021 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.


    Plant Biology, Taxonomy, and Morphology

    This self-paced course teaches you the parts of plants and how they function. You'll review plant development and plant processes like photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration. The information is presented with a specific focus on managing plants in a landscape.

    Educational videos, images, short readings, and knowledge check questions teach you about plant taxonomy and morphology so you can accurately identify plants and use scientific plant names, common names, and cultivars. For landscapers, this helps you communicate with vendors and clients. You will also learn about plant defenses and environmental factors that influence plant survival.

    There are four sections in this course, and each has a quiz at the end. You will need to achieve a score greater than 80% on each quiz to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.

    This course qualifies for 2 Pennsylvania Certified Horticulturist (PCH) continuing education units (CEUs). To obtain this credit, complete the course and earn a certificate of completion. Then submit your certificate of completion when you submit your CEUs to the Pennsylvania Landscape and Nursery Association.

    This course was supported by the generous contributions of the Pennsylvania Landscape and Nursery Association.


    Plant Topics

    • Plant Chemistry
    • Plant Evolution
    • Plants and Humans
    • Plant Parts
    • Seed Dispersal
    • Photosynthesis

    As the botanists with UntamedScience add more information this year, we will also add educational videos to these pages. Be patient with us though, these pages are all under construction …


    Frequently bought together

    Review

    Praise for the first edition:

    "It is the best book on the subject of plant anatomy since the texts of "Esau. can serve equally well as a text. or as a reference for researchers."
    Carol A. Peterson, Annals of Botany

    "A fabulous and important contribution that needs to be read by anyone who calls himself or herself a botanist."
    Karl J. Niklas, Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor of Plant Biology, Cornell University

    "An Introduction to Plant Structure and Development: Plant Anatomy for the Twenty-first Century is a signficant and informative synthesis. Those interested in plant structure are likely to find it a valuable reference worth owning, For me, it is already proving its usefulness in both teaching and research."
    William B. Sanders, Florida Gulf Coast University for Plant Science Bulletin

    Book Description

    About the Author


    Introduction to Paleobotany, How Fossil Plants are Formed

    Thomas N. Taylor , . Michael Krings , in Paleobotany (Second Edition) , 2009

    Coal Balls.

    We know more about the anatomy, morphology, and biology of Carboniferous coal-swamp plants than those from any other time period, and this is primarily due to coal balls. During the Carboniferous, North America and Europe were close to the equator and contained extensive tropical forests which contributed to the extensive coal deposits characteristic of these areas today. Associated with some of these coal deposits are coal balls ( FIGS. 1.51–1.53 ), variously shaped nodules which occur in bituminous coal seams. Coal balls represent permineralized peat deposits and are composed almost entirely of plant parts preserved in calcium carbonate. Some of the first ones found in England were nearly spherical, hence the name, coal ball, but they can be irregular in shape and range from a few centimeters across to many meters in thickness. Some of the oldest ones come from the upper Namurian (Upper Mississippian) of Germany and the Czech Republic, but they are also known from Permian coal deposits in China. They can be readily studied by means of the peel technique.

    Figure 1.51 . Collecting coal balls at a strip mine in southern Illinois.

    Figure 1.52 . Digging coal balls from a stream bank in Illinois, USA.

    Figure 1.53 . Transporting bags of coal balls from a site in Kentucky, USA.

    The method of formation of coal balls has been examined by a number of paleobotanists (Falcon-Lang, 2008), beginning with Stopes and Watson (1908), but the process is still not fully understood. When fresh or partially decayed, the peat was infiltrated by carbonates (fibrous calcite) before there was extensive compaction of the plants within. Since some coal balls are associated with marine limestones, it has been suggested that the plants were growing in low-lying, swampy areas close to the sea, and this hypothesis fits with the paleogeography of Midcontinent North America during the Carboniferous. During storms or marine transgressions (Mamay and Yochelson, 1962), the coal swamp was inundated by seawater, which provided a source of calcium carbonate for permineralization. This hypothesis explains the mixed nature of some coal balls in which both plant and marine animal remains are preserved. Scott and Rex (1985) suggested that all coal balls are not formed by the same process and put forward a non-marine model of formation in which the permineralizing fluids are derived from percolating groundwater high in carbonates. Scott et al. (1996) examined the origin of Carboniferous and Permian coal balls from Euramerica and China and concluded that several different mechanisms were involved, depending on the region and the location of the coal balls within the coal seam. Based on carbon isotopes, they found that some coal balls involved a mixture of marine and meteoric fresh water percolating through the peat and noted that most coal balls formed in freshwater basins with at least some marine influence. There can be little doubt that the formation of coal balls was a highly specialized process, as none are known after the Carboniferous‐Permian. To the coal miner these calcium carbonate coal balls represent impurities in the coal that are often termed “fault,” but to the paleobotanist they provide a source of fascinating information that can be used to investigate the biology of the plants that lived in the peat swamps hundreds of millions of years ago.


    References

    Abramoff, M. D., Magalh฾s, P. J., and Ram, S. J. (2004). Image processing with ImageJ. Biophotonics Int. 11, 36�.

    Armengaud, P., Zambaux, K., Hills, A., Sulpice, R., Pattison, R. J., Blatt, M. R., et al. (2009). EZ-Rhizo: integrated software for the fast and accurate measurement of root system architecture. Plant J. 57, 945�. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03739.x

    Auger, S., and Shipley, B. (2012). Inter-specific and intra-specific trait variation along short environmental gradients in an old-growth temperate forest. J. Veg. Sci. 24, 419�. doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2012.01473.x

    Bailey, J. K., Hendry, A. P., Kinnison, M. T., Post, D. M., Palkovacs, E. P., Pelletier, F., et al. (2009a). From genes to ecosystems: an emerging synthesis of eco-evolutionary dynamics. New Phytol. 184, 746�. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03081.x

    Bailey, J. K., Schweitzer, J. A., Ubeda, F., Koricheva, J., LeRoy, C. J., Madritch, M. D., et al. (2009b). From genes to ecosystems: a synthesis of the effects of plant genetic factors across levels of organization. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364, 1607�. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0336

    Bangert, R. K., Allan, G. J., Turek, R. J., Wimp, G. M., Meneses, N., Martinsen, G. D., et al. (2006). From genes to geography: a genetic similarity rule for arthropod community structure at multiple geographic scales. Mol. Ecol. 15, 4215�. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03092.x

    Bashline, L., Lei, L., Li, S., and Gu, Y. (2014). Cell wall, cytoskeleton, and cell expansion in higher plants. Mol. Plant 7, 586�. doi: 10.1093/mp/ssu018

    Beemster, G. T. S., De Veylder, L., Vercruysse, S., West, G., Rombaut, D., Van Hummelen, P., et al. (2005). Genome-wide analysis of gene expression profiles associated with cell cycle transitions in growing organs of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 138, 734�. doi: 10.1104/pp.104.053884

    Bensmihen, S., Hanna, A. I., Langlade, N. B., Micol, J. L., Bangham, A., and Coen, E. S. (2008). Mutational spaces for leaf shape and size. HFSP J. 2, 110�. doi: 10.2976/1.2836738

    Berntson, G. M. (1997). Topological scaling and plant root system architecture: developmental and functional hierarchies. New Phytol. 135, 621�. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00687.x

    Bonser, A. M., Lynch, J., and Snapp, S. (1996). Effect of phosphorus deficiency on growth angle of basal roots in Phaseolus vulgaris. New Phytol. 132, 281�. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1996.tb01847.x

    Bossinger, G., and Smyth, D. R. (1996). Initiation patterns of flower and floral organ development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development 122, 1093�. doi: 10.1105/tpc.1.1.37

    Boudon, F., Pradal, C., Cokelaer, T., Prusinkiewicz, P., and Godin, C. (2012). L-Py: an L-system simulation framework for modeling plant architecture development based on a dynamic language. Front. Plant Sci. 3:76. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00076

    Bucksch, A. (2014). A practical introduction to skeletons for the plant sciences. Appl. Plant Sci. 2:1400005. doi: 10.3732/apps.1400005

    Bucksch, A., Burridge, J., York, L. M., Das, A., Nord, E., Weitz, J. S., et al. (2014). Image-based high-throughput field phenotyping of crop roots. Plant Physiol. 166, 470�. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.243519

    Bucksch, A., Lindenbergh, R., and Menenti, M. (2010). SkelTre. Vis. Comput. 26, 1283�. doi: 10.1007/s00371-010-0520-4

    Burridge, J., Schneider, H. M., Huynh, B.-L., Roberts, P. A., Bucksch, A., and Lynch, J. P. (2016). Genome-wide association mapping and agronomic impact of cowpea root architecture. Theor. Appl. Genet. doi: 10.1007/s00122-016-2823-y [Epub ahead of print].

    Chen, B. J. W., During, H. J., and Anten, N. P. R. (2012). Detect thy neighbor: identity recognition at the root level in plants. Plant Sci. 195, 157�. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2012.07.006

    Chew, Y. H., Smith, R. W., Jones, H. J., Seaton, D. D., Grima, R., and Halliday, K. J. (2014). Mathematical models light up plant signaling. Plant Cell 26, 5�. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.120006

    Chitwood, D. H., Headland, L. R., Kumar, R., Peng, J., Maloof, J. N., and Sinha, N. R. (2012). The developmental trajectory of leaflet morphology in wild tomato species. Plant Physiol. 158, 1230�. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.192518

    Chitwood, D. H., Klein, L. L., O’Hanlon, R., Chacko, S., Greg, M., Kitchen, C., et al. (2016a). Latent developmental and evolutionary shapes embedded within the grapevine leaf. New Phytol. 210, 343�. doi: 10.1111/nph.13754

    Chitwood, D. H., Kumar, R., Headland, L. R., Ranjan, A., Covington, M. F., Ichihashi, Y., et al. (2013). A quantitative genetic basis for leaf morphology in a set of precisely defined tomato introgression lines. Plant Cell 25, 2465�. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.112391

    Chitwood, D. H., Ranjan, A., Martinez, C. C., Headland, L. R., Thiem, T., Kumar, R., et al. (2014). A modern ampelography: a genetic basis for leaf shape and venation patterning in grape. Plant Physiol. 164, 259�. doi: 10.1104/pp.113.229708

    Chitwood, D. H., Rundell, S. M., Li, D. Y., Woodford, Q. L., Yu, T. T., Lopez, J. R., et al. (2016b). Climate and developmental plasticity: interannual variability in grapevine leaf morphology. Plant Physiol. 170, 1480�. doi: 10.1104/pp.15.01825

    Chitwood, D. H., and Sinha, N. R. (2016). Evolutionary and environmental forces sculpting leaf development. Curr. Biol. 4, R297–R306. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.02.033

    Clark, C., and Kalita, J. (2014). A comparison of algorithms for the pairwise alignment of biological networks. Bioinformatics 30, 2351�. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu307/-/DC1

    Clark, R. T., MacCurdy, R. B., Jung, J. K., Shaff, J. E., McCouch, S. R., Aneshansley, D. J., et al. (2011). Three-dimensional root phenotyping with a novel imaging and software platform. Plant Physiol. 156, 455�. doi: 10.1104/pp.110.169102

    Cooper, L., and Jaiswal, P. (2016). The plant ontology: a tool for plant genomics. Methods Mol. Biol. 1374, 89�. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3167-5_5

    Crutsinger, G. M., Collins, M. D., Fordyce, J. A., Gompert, Z., Nice, C. C., and Sanders, N. J. (2006). Plant genotypic diversity predicts community structure and governs an ecosystem process. Science 313, 966�. doi: 10.1126/science.1128326

    Cui, M. L., Copsey, L., Green, A. A., Bangham, J. A., and Coen, E. (2010). Quantitative control of organ shape by combinatorial gene activity. PLoS Biol. 8:e1000538. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.10000538

    Das, A., Schneider, H., Burridge, J., Ascanio, A. K. M., Wojciechowski, T., Topp, C. N., et al. (2015). Digital imaging of root traits (DIRT): a high-throughput computing and collaboration platform for field-based root phenomics. Plant Methods 11:51. doi: 10.1186/s13007-015-0093-3

    de Boer, H. J., Price, C. A., Wagner-Cremer, F., Dekker, S. C., Franks, P. J., and Veneklaas, E. J. (2016). Optimal allocation of leaf epidermal area for gas exchange. New Phytol. 210, 1219�. doi: 10.1111/nph.13929

    Draye, X., Kim, Y., Lobet, G., and Javaux, M. (2010). Model-assisted integration of physiological and environmental constraints affecting the dynamic and spatial patterns of root water uptake from soils. J. Exp. Bot. 61, 2145�. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erq077

    Eichhorst, P., and Savitch, W. J. (1980). Growth functions of stochastic Lindenmayer systems. Inform. Control 45, 217�. doi: 10.1016/S0019-9958(80)90593-8

    Fang, S., Clark, R. T., Zheng, Y., Iyer-Pascuzzi, A. S., Weitz, J. S., Kochian, L. V., et al. (2013). Genotypic recognition and spatial responses by rice roots. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 2670�. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1222821110

    Feng, A., Wilson, Y., Bowers, J., Kennaway, R., Bangham, A., Hannah, A., et al. (2009). Evolution of allometry in antirrhinum. Plant Cell 21, 2999�. doi: 10.1105/tpc.109.069054

    Ficklin, S. P., and Feltus, F. A. (2011). Gene coexpression network alignment and conservation of gene modules between two grass species: maize and rice. Plant Physiol. 156, 1244�. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.173047

    French, A., Ubeda-Tomás, S., Holman, T. J., Bennett, M. J., and Pridmore, T. (2009). High-throughput quantification of root growth using a novel image-analysis tool. Plant Physiol. 150, 1784�. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.140558

    Galkovskyi, T., Mileyko, Y., Bucksch, A., Moore, B., Symonova, O., Price, C. A., et al. (2012). GiA roots: software for the high throughput analysis of plant root system architecture. BMC Plant Biol. 12:116. doi: 10.1186/1471-2229-12-116

    Gendreau, E., Traas, J., Desnos, T., Grandjean, O., Caboche, M., and Hofte, H. (1997). Cellular basis of hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 114, 295�. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.1.295

    Godin, C. (2000). Representing and encoding plant architecture: a review. Ann. For. Sci. 57, 413�. doi: 10.1051/forest:2000132

    Godin, C., and Caraglio, Y. (1998). A multiscale model of plant topological structures. J. Theor. Biol. 191, 1�. doi: 10.1006/jtbi.1997.0561

    Godin, C., Costes, E., and Sinoquet, H. (1999). A method for describing plant architecture which integrates topology and geometry. Ann. Bot. 84, 343�. doi: 10.1006/anbo.1999.0923

    Hartley, R., and Zisserman, A. (2005). Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Hemmerling, R., Kniemeyer, O., Lanwert, D., Kurth, W., and Buck-Sorlin, G. (2008). The rule-based language XL and the modelling environment GroIMP illustrated with simulated tree competition. Funct. Plant Biol. 35, 739�. doi: 10.1071/FP08052

    Hervieux, N., Dumond, M., Sapala, A., Routier-Kierzkowska, A.-L., Kierzkowski, D., Roeder, A. H. K., et al. (2016). A mechanical feedback restricts sepal growth and shape in Arabidopsis. Curr. Biol. 26, 1019�. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.03.004

    Hille Ris Lambers, J., Adler, P. B., Harpole, W. S., Levine, J. M., and Mayfield, M. M. (2012). Rethinking community assembly through the lens of coexistence theory. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 43, 227�. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110411-160411

    Hodge, A. (2004). The plastic plant: root responses to heterogeneous supplies of nutrients. New Phytol. 162, 9�. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01015.x

    Hong, L., Dumond, M., Tsugawa, S., Sapala, A., Routier-Kierzkowska, A.-L., Zhou, Y., et al. (2016). Variable cell growth yields reproducible organ development through spatiotemporal averaging. Dev. Cell 38, 15�. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2016.06.016

    Hughes, A. R., Inouye, B. D., Johnson, M. T. J., Underwood, N., and Vellend, M. (2008). Ecological consequences of genetic diversity. Ecol. Lett. 11, 609�. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01179.x

    Hund, A., Trachsel, S., and Stamp, P. (2009). Growth of axile and lateral roots of maize: I. development of a phenotyping platform. Plant Soil 325, 335�. doi: 10.1007/s11104-009-9984-2

    Ilic, K., Kellogg, E. A., Jaiswal, P., Zapata, F., Stevens, P. F., Vincent, L. P., et al. (2007). The plant structure ontology, a unified vocabulary of anatomy and morphology of a flowering plant. Plant Physiol. 143, 587�. doi: 10.1104/pp.106.092825

    Ito, F., Komatsubara, S., Shigezawa, N., Morikawa, H., Murakami, Y., Yoshino, K., et al. (2015). Mechanics of water collection in plants via morphology change of conical hairs. Appl. Phys. Lett. 106:133701. doi: 10.1063/1.4916213

    Iyer-Pascuzzi, A. S., Symonova, O., Mileyko, Y., Hao, Y., Belcher, H., Harer, J., et al. (2010). Imaging and analysis platform for automatic phenotyping and trait ranking of plant root systems. Plant Physiol. 152, 1148�. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.150748

    Jain, A. K. (1989). Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

    Jaramillo, R. E., Nord, E. A., Chimungu, J. G., Brown, K. M., and Lynch, J. P. (2013). Root cortical burden influences drought tolerance in maize. Ann. Bot. 112, 429�. doi: 10.1093/aob/mct069

    Johnson, M., Lajeunesse, M. J., and Agrawal, A. A. (2006). Additive and interactive effects of plant genotypic diversity on arthropod communities and plant fitness. Ecol. Lett. 9, 24�. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00833.x

    Jung, J., and McCouch, S. (2013). Getting to the roots of it: genetic and hormonal control of root architecture. Front. Plant Sci. 4:186. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00186/abstract

    Kichenin, E., Wardle, D. A., Peltzer, D. A., Morse, C. W., and Freschet, G. T. (2013). Contrasting effects of plant inter- and intraspecific variation on community-level trait measures along an environmental gradient. Funct. Ecol. 27, 1254�. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12116

    Kleyer, M., Bekker, R. M., Knevel, I. C., Bakker, J. P., Thompson, K., Sonnenschein, M., et al. (2008). The LEDA traitbase: a database of life-history traits for the Northwest European flora. J. Ecol. 96, 1266�. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2008.01430

    Krajewski, P., Chen, D., Cwiek, H., van Dijk, A. D. J., Fiorani, F., Kersey, P., et al. (2015). Towards recommendations for metadata and data handling in plant phenotyping. J. Exp. Bot. 66, 5417�. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erv271

    Kuchaiev, O., Milenkoviæ, T., Memiᘞviæ, V., Hayes, W., and Pržulj, N. (2010). Topological network alignment uncovers biological function and phylogeny. J. R. Soc. Interf. 7, 1341�. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2010.0063

    Kuhl, F. P., and Giardina, C. R. (1982). Elliptic fourier features of a closed contour. Comput. Graph. Image Process. 19, 236�. doi: 10.1016/0146-664X(82)90034-X

    Kuijken, R. C. P., van Eeuwijk, F. A., Marcelis, L. F. M., and Bouwmeester, H. J. (2015). Root phenotyping: from component trait in the lab to breeding: Table 1. J. Exp. Bot. 66, 5389�. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erv239

    Kurth, W., Kniemeyer, O., and Buck-Sorlin, G. (2005). “Relational growth grammars𠄺 graph rewriting approach to dynamical systems with a dynamical structure,” in Unconventional Programming Paradigms, eds J.-P. Banâtre, P. Fradet, J.-L. Giavitto, and O. Michel (Berlin: Springer), 56�. doi: 10.1007/11527800_5

    Kutschera, U., and Niklas, K. J. (2007). The epidermal-growth-control theory of stem elongation: an old and a new perspective. J. Plant Physiol. 164, 1395�. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2007.08.002

    Langlade, N. B., Feng, X., Dransfield, T., Copsey, L., Hanna, A. I., Thebaud, C., et al. (2005). Evolution through genetically controlled allometry space. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 10221�. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0504210102

    Lankau, R. A., and Strauss, S. Y. (2007). Mutual feedbacks maintain both genetic and species diversity in a plant community. Science 317, 1561�. doi: 10.1126/science.1147455

    Laughlin, D. C., and Laughlin, D. E. (2013). Advances in modeling trait-based plant community assembly. Trends Plant Sci. 18, 584�. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2013.04.012

    Leitner, D., Klepsch, S., Ptashnyk, M., Marchant, A., Kirk, G. J. D., Schnepf, A., et al. (2010). A dynamic model of nutrient uptake by root hairs. New Phytol. 185, 792�. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03128.x

    Li, L., Zhang, Q., and Huang, D. (2014). A review of imaging techniques for plant phenotyping. Sensors 14, 20078�. doi: 10.3390/s141120078

    Lindenmayer, A. (1968). Mathematical models for cellular interaction in development, Parts I and II. J. Theor. Biol. 18, 280�. doi: 10.1016/0022-5193(68)90079-9

    Lobet, G., Draye, X., and Perilleux, C. (2013). An online database for plant image analysis software tools. Plant Methods 9:38. doi: 10.1186/1746-4811-9-38

    Lobet, G., Pages, L., and Draye, X. (2011). A novel image-analysis toolbox enabling quantitative analysis of root system architecture. Plant Physiol. 157, 29�. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.179895

    Lobet, G., Pound, M. P., Diener, J., Pradal, C., Draye, X., Godin, C., et al. (2015). Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language. Plant Physiol. 167, 617�. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.253625

    Lynch, J. (1995). Root architecture and plant productivity. Plant Physiol. 109, 7�. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.1.7

    Lynch, J. P. (2007). Roots of the second green revolution. Aust. J. Bot. 55, 493�. doi: 10.1071/BT06118

    Lynch, J. P. (2011). Root phenes for enhanced soil exploration and phosphorus acquisition: tools for future crops. Plant Physiol. 156, 1041�. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.175414

    Lynch, J. P. (2013). Steep, cheap and deep: an ideotype to optimize water and N acquisition by maize root systems. Ann. Bot. 112, 347�. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcs293

    Lynch, J. P. (2014). Root phenes that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration: opportunities for 21st century agriculture. Plant Cell Environ. 38, 1775�. doi: 10.1111/pce.12451

    Lynch, J. P., and Brown, K. M. (2001). Topsoil foraging – an architectural adaptation of plants to low phosphorus availability. Plant Soil 237, 225�. doi: 10.1023/A:1013324727040

    Lynch, J. P., Chimungu, J. G., and Brown, K. M. (2014). Root anatomical phenes associated with water acquisition from drying soil: targets for crop improvement. J. Exp. Bot. 65, 6155�. doi: 10.1093/jxb/eru162

    Lynch, J. P., Nielsen, K. L., Davis, R. D., and Jablokow, A. G. (1997). SimRoot: modelling and visualization of root systems. Plant Soil 188, 139�. doi: 10.1023/A:1004276724310

    Mairhofer, S., Zappala, S., Tracy, S., Sturrock, C., Bennett, M. J., Mooney, S. J., et al. (2013). Recovering complete plant root system architectures from soil via X-ray micro-computed tomography. Plant Methods 9:8. doi: 10.1186/1746-4811-9-8

    Mairhofer, S., Zappala, S., Tracy, S. R., Sturrock, C., Bennett, M., Mooney, S. J., et al. (2012). RooTrak: Automated recovery of three-dimensional plant root architecture in soil from X-ray microcomputed tomography images using visual tracking. Plant Physiol. 158, 561�. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.186221

    Miguel, M. A., Postma, J. A., and Lynch, J. P. (2015). Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus acquisition. Plant Physiol. 167, 1430�. doi: 10.1104/pp.15.00145

    Milenkovic, T., Ng, W. L., Hayes, W., and Przulj, N. (2010). Optimal network alignment with graphlet degree vectors. Cancer Inform. 30, 121�. doi: 10.4137/CIN.S4744

    Ong, Y., Streit, K., Henke, M., and Kurth, W. (2014). An approach to multiscale modelling with graph grammars. Ann. Bot. 114, 813�. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcu155

    Pages, L. (2014). Branching patterns of root systems: quantitative analysis of the diversity among dicotyledonous species. Ann. Bot. 114, 591�. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcu145

    Peret, B., Desnos, T., Jost, R., Kanno, S., Berkowitz, O., and Nussaume, L. (2014). Root architecture responses: in search of phosphate. Plant Physiol. 166, 1713�. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.244541

    Piccolo, S. R., and Frampton, M. B. (2016). Tools and techniques for computational reproducibility. Gigascience 5, 1�. doi: 10.1186/s13742-016-0135-4

    Pi༞ros, M. A., Larson, B. G., Shaff, J. E., Schneider, D. J., Falcão, A. X., Yuan, L., et al. (2016). Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 58, 230�. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12456

    Postma, J. A., and Lynch, J. P. (2011). Root cortical aerenchyma enhances the growth of maize on soils with suboptimal availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Plant Physiol. 156, 1190�. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.175489

    Pradal, C., Boudon, F., Nouguier, C., Chopard, J., and Godin, C. (2009). PlantGL: A Python-based geometric library for 3D plant modelling at different scales. Graph. Models 71, 1�. doi: 10.1016/j.gmod.2008.10.001

    Prusinkiewicz, P. (1986). “Graphical applications of L-systems,” in Proceedings of Graphics Interface �/Vision Interface �, eds M. Wein and E. M. Kidd (Vancouver, BC: Canadian Information Processing Society), 247�.

    Prusinkiewicz, P., Karwowski, R., and Lane, B. (2007). “The L+C plant modeling language,” in Functional-Structural Plant Modeling in Crop Production, eds J. Vos, L. F. M. Marcelis, P. H. B. de Visser, P. C. Struik, J. B. Evers, and R. J. Bogers (Wageningen: Springer), 27�.

    Prusinkiewicz, P., and Lindenmayer, A. (1990). The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants. New York, NY: Springer.

    Qu, X., Chatty, P. R., and Roeder, A. H. K. (2014). Endomembrane trafficking protein SEC24A regulates cell size patterning in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 166, 1877�. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.246033

    Rameau, C., Bertheloot, J., Leduc, N., Andrieu, B., Foucher, F., and Sakr, S. (2015). Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching. Front Plant Sci. 5:74. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00741

    Reich, P. B., Walters, M. B., Tjoelker, M. G., Vanderklein, D., and Buschena, C. (1998). Photosynthesis and respiration rates depend on leaf and root morphology and nitrogen concentration in nine boreal tree species differing in relative growth rate. Funct. Ecol. 12, 395�. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2435.1998.00209.x

    Rellán-Álvarez, R., Lobet, G., Lindner, H., Pradier, P.-L., Sebastian, J., Yee, M.-C., et al. (2015). GLO-Roots: an imaging platform enabling multidimensional characterization of soil-grown root systems. eLife 4, 1�. doi: 10.7554/eLife.07597

    Roeder, A. H. K., Chickarmane, V., Cunha, A., Obara, B., Manjunath, B. S., and Meyerowitz, E. M. (2010). Variability in the control of cell division underlies sepal epidermal patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Biol. 8:e1000367. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000367

    Roeder, A. H. K., Cunha, A., Ohno, C. K., and Meyerowitz, E. M. (2012). Cell cycle regulates cell type in the Arabidopsis sepal. Development 139, 4416�. doi: 10.1242/dev.082925

    Rousseau, D., Chéné, Y., Belin, E., Semaan, G., Trigui, G., Boudehri, K., et al. (2015). Multiscale imaging of plants: current approaches and challenges. Plant Methods 11:413. doi: 10.1186/s13007-015-0050-1

    Ruffel, S., Krouk, G., Ristova, D., Shasha, D., Birnbaum, K. D., and Coruzzi, G. M. (2011). Nitrogen economics of root foraging: transitive closure of the nitrate-cytokinin relay and distinct systemic signaling for N supply vs. demand. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 18524�. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1108684108

    Saengwilai, P., Nord, E. A., Chimungu, J. G., Brown, K. M., and Lynch, J. P. (2014). Root cortical aerenchyma enhances nitrogen acquisition from low-nitrogen soils in maize. Plant Physiol. 166, 726�. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.241711

    Savaldi-Goldstein, S., Peto, C., and Chory, J. (2007). The epidermis both drives and restricts plant shoot growth. Nature 446, 199�. doi: 10.1038/nature05618

    Schiessl, K., Muino, J. M., and Sablowski, R. (2014). Arabidopsis JAGGED links floral organ patterning to tissue growth by repressing Kip-related cell cycle inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 2830�. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1320457111

    Siefert, A., Violle, C., Chalmandrier, L., Albert, C. H., Taudiere, A., Fajardo, A., et al. (2015). A global meta-analysis of the relative extent of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities. Ecol. Lett. 18, 1406�. doi: 10.1111/ele.12508

    Sinoquet, H., and Rivet, P. (1997). Measurement and visualisation of the architecture of an adult tree based on a three-dimensional digitising device. Trees 11, 265�. doi: 10.1007/s004680050084

    Smith, S., and De Smet, I. (2012). Root system architecture: insights from Arabidopsis and cereal crops. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 367, 1441�. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0234

    Suding, K. N., Lavorel, S., Chapin, F. S., Cornelissen, J. H. C., Diaz, S., Garnier, E., et al. (2008). Scaling environmental change through the community-level: a trait-based response-and-effect framework for plants. Glob. Change Biol. 14, 1125�. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01557.x

    Symonova, O., Topp, C. N., and Edelsbrunner, H. (2015). DynamicRoots: a software platform for the reconstruction and analysis of growing plant roots. PLoS ONE 10:e0127657. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127657

    Tauriello, G., Meyer, H. M., Smith, R. S., Koumoutsakos, P., and Roeder, A. H. K. (2015). Variability and constancy in cellular growth of Arabidopsis sepals. Plant Physiol. 169, 2342�. doi: 10.1104/pp.15.00839

    Tian, F., Bradbury, P. J., Brown, P. J., Hung, H., Sun, Q., Flint-Garcia, S., et al. (2011). Genome-wide association study of leaf architecture in the maize nested association mapping population. Nat. Genet. 43, 159�. doi: 10.1038/ng.746

    Topp, C. N., Iyer-Pascuzzi, A. S., Anderson, J. T., Lee, C.-R., Zurek, P. R., Symonova, O., et al. (2013). 3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, e1695�. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1304354110

    Trachsel, S., Kaeppler, S. M., Brown, K. M., and Lynch, J. P. (2011). Shovelomics: high throughput phenotyping of maize (Zea mays L.) root architecture in the field. Plant Soil 341, 75�. doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0623-8

    Vandenbussche, F., Pierik, R., Millenaar, F. F., Voesenek, L. A., and Van Der Straeten, D. (2005). Reaching out of the shade. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol 8, 462�. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2005.07.007

    Vellend, M., and Geber, M. A. (2005). Connections between species diversity and genetic diversity. Ecol. Lett. 8, 767�. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00775.x

    Verheijen, L. M., Brovkin, V., Aerts, R., Bönisch, G., Cornelissen, J. H. C., Kattge, J., et al. (2013). Impacts of trait variation through observed trait𠄼limate relationships on performance of an Earth system model: a conceptual analysis. Biogeosciences 10, 5497�. doi: 10.5194/bg-10-5497-2013

    Violle, C., Enquist, B. J., McGill, B. J., Jiang, L., Albert, C. H., Hulshof, C., et al. (2012). The return of the variance: intraspecific variability in community ecology. Trends Ecol. Evolut. 27, 245�. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2011.11.014

    Vogel, G. (2013). How do organs know when they have reached the right size? Science 340, 1156�. doi: 10.1126/science.340.6137.1156-b

    Whitham, T. G., Bailey, J. K., Schweitzer, J. A., Shuster, S. M., Bangert, R. K., LeRoy, C. J., et al. (2006). A framework for community and ecosystem genetics: from genes to ecosystems. Nat. Rev. Genet. 7, 510�. doi: 10.1038/nrg1877

    Zhang, H., Jennings, A., Barlow, P. W., and Forde, B. G. (1999). Dual pathways for regulation of root branching by nitrate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 6529�. doi: 10.1073/pnas.96.11.6529

    Zhu, J., Brown, K. M., and Lynch, J. P. (2010). Root cortical aerenchyma improves the drought tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.). Plant, Cell Environ. 33, 740�. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.02099.x

    Zurek, P. R., Topp, C. N., and Benfey, P. N. (2015). Quantitative trait locus mapping reveals regions of the maize genome controlling root system architecture. Plant Physiol. 167, 1487�. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.251751

    Keywords : morphology, topology, geometry, leaf, hypocotyl, sepal, roots, ecology

    Citation: Balduzzi M, Binder BM, Bucksch A, Chang C, Hong L, Iyer-Pascuzzi AS, Pradal C and Sparks EE (2017) Reshaping Plant Biology: Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptors for Plant Morphology. Front. Plant Sci. 8:117. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00117

    Received: 23 August 2016 Accepted: 19 January 2017
    Published: 03 February 2017.

    Hartmut Stützel, Leibniz University of Hanover, Germany

    Copyright © 2017 Balduzzi, Binder, Bucksch, Chang, Hong, Iyer-Pascuzzi, Pradal and Sparks. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


    Doctor of Philosophy in Life Sciences with Plant Pathology Concentration

    It is recommended that the doctoral program include enrichment courses to be approved by the graduate committee. The enrichment program would consist of 12 course credits or equivalent special projects or study areas related to the specific interests and needs of the student.

    This program requires 60 credit hours of coursework above the baccalaureate degree.

    The student’s Ph.D. graduate committee will consist of a total of at least five members with at least three of these members from the department faculty. The student will submit a research proposal to the committee.

    The student must pass written and oral preliminary examinations dealing with his/her program of study. A student not passing the preliminary exams on a second attempt will be given the option of completing the research required for an M.S. (provided the coursework is also adequate). The student must pass a final oral defense of the dissertation upon completion of the research program.

    BCH 6013 Principles of Biochemistry: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: CH 2503, BIO 1134 or equivalent.) Three hours lecture. A survey of biochemistry designed to provide the non-major with a comprehensive background in the field. (Credit will not be given to students matriculating in the Biochemistry or Molecular Biology degree programs.)

    BCH 6113 Essentials of Molecular Genetics: 3 hours.

    Three hours lecture. A survey of molecular biology and genetics designed to provide the non-major with a comprehensive background in the field. (Credit will not be given to students matriculating in the Biochemistry or Molecular Biology degree program)

    BCH 6253 Macronutrients: Human Metabolism: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: FNH Majors: Grade of “C” or better or concurrent enrollment in BCH 4013 and Junior or Senior Standing or BCH Major). Three hours face-to-face lecture or web-based distance instruction. In-depth study of the chemistry and functionality of macronutrients in food systems and their biochemical impact on the human body. (Same as FNH 4253/6253)

    BCH 6333 Advanced Forensic Science: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite:BCH 4013/6013 or BCH 4603/6603 and BCH 4613/6613 or consent of instructor). Three hours lecture. An advanced study of the central concepts in forensic science as they relate to physiology, biochemistry and statistics

    BCH 6414 Protein Methods: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisite: Coregistration in BCH 4603/6603). Two hours lecture. Four hours laboratory. A comprehensive course to teach the student the modern methods of protein biochemistry

    BCH 6443 Introduction to Public Health: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite BIO 1134, BIO 1144 or consent of instructor). Three hours lecture. Introduction to the field of Public Health. Includes an overview of historic and existing health problems and disparities unique to the United States and Southeast and an overview of related epidemiological methods

    BCH 6503 Scientific Communication Skills: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EN 1113 and MA 1713 and CH 4513 or consent of instructor, or Graduate standing). Three hours lecture. Introduction to developing information literature and survey of data manipulation and presentation skills

    BCH 6603 General Biochemistry I: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: CH 4564, CH 4523/6523 or consent of instructor). Three hours lecture. BCH 4603/6603 must be completed before student may enroll in BCH 4613/6613. Detailed studies of the structure and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and coenzymes

    BCH 6613 General Biochemistry II: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: CH 4564, CH 4523/6523 or consent of instructor). Three hours lecture. BCH 4603/6603 must be completed before student may enroll in BCH 4613/6613. Detailed studies of the structure and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and coenzymes

    BCH 6623 Biochemistry of Specialized Tissues: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: Coregistration in BCH 4613/6613). A continuation of BCH 4613/6613 to include a study of specialized tissues, hormones, acid-base balance in animals and other physiological parameters of biochemistry

    BCH 6713 Molecular Biology: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: Coregistration in BCH 4613/6613). Three hours lecture. A study of basic molecular process such as synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Offered fall semester. (Same as GNS 6713)

    BCH 6803 Integrative Protein Evolution: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite BCH 4613/6613 Biochemistry II). This course focuses on providing students with an integrative view of molecular evolution, demonstrating how genomic mutations cause biochemical changes which are then reflected at the organismal level, using hemoglobin as our model system

    BCH 6804 Molecular Biology Methods: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisite:Coregistration in BCH 4613/6613). Two hours lecture. Four hours laboratory. A comprehensive course to teach the student the modern methods of molecular biology. (Same as GNS 4804/6804),

    BCH 6903 Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: 3 hours.

    Three hours lecture. A comprehensive course on biochemical and molecular processes specific for plant cells. The course includes ample information on the molecular components and pathways required for plant response to pathogens and tolerance to environmental factors

    BCH 6990 Special Topics in Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-9 hours.

    Credit and title to be arranged. This course is to be used on a limited basis to offer developing subject matter areas not covered in existing courses. (Courses limited to two offerings under one title within two academic years)

    BCH 7000 Directed Individual Study in Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-6 hours.

    Hours and credits to be arranged

    BCH 8000 Thesis Research/ Thesis in Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-13 hours.

    Hours and credits to be arranged

    BCH 8101 Seminar: 1 hour.

    Review of current literature individual presentation of research or classical topics. Course can be taken twice for credit

    BCH 8243 Molecular Biology of Plants: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: Coregistration in BCH 4613/6613). Three hours lecture. A study of plant development at the molecular level. Emphasis will be placed on the influence of nucleic acid metabolism on plant development

    BCH 8631 Topics in Genomics: 1 hour.

    (Prerequisites:PSS/BCH 8653 or BCH 4713/6713 or BCH 8643 ). Review and discussion of classic and current genomics literatureindividual presentation of a seminar highlighting an area of genomics research. (Same as PSS 8631)

    BCH 8633 Enzymes: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: BCH 4613/6613). Three hours lecture. A study of enzymes their purification, classification, kinetics and mechanisms

    BCH 8643 Molecular Genetics: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: PO 3103, or BIO 3103, and Coregistration in BCH 5613/7613). Three hours lecture. Study of the gene and its expression with emphasis on structure and function in higher organisms. (Same as GNS 8643)

    BCH 8653 Genomes and Genomics: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites:BCH 4113/6113 or BCH 4713/6713 or BCH 8643 or consent of instructor). Overview of genome structure and evolution with emphasis on genomics, the use of molecular biology, robotics, and advanced computational methods to efficiently study genomes. (Same as PSS 8653)

    BCH 8654 Intermediary Metabolism: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisite: BCH 4613/6613). Four hours lecture. An advanced in-depth study of anabolic and catabolic pathways involved in cellular metabolism. Bioenergetics and control mechanisms will be emphasized

    BCH 8663 Proteome and Proteomics: 3 hours.

    Three hours lecture. This course introduces proteome (the entire complement of proteins in cells) and proteomics which is the large-scale study of proteomes, directed to analyzing protein function in a cellular context. It is designed to cover the fundamental concepts of proteomics and its applications to biomedical research

    BCH 8990 Special Topics in Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-9 hours.

    Credit and title to be arranged. This course is to be used on a limited basis to offer developing subject matter areas not covered in existing courses. (Courses limited to two offerings under one title within two academic years)

    BCH 9000 Dissertation Research/ Dissertation in Biochemistry,Molecular Biology,Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-13 hours.

    Hours and credit to be arranged

    EPP 6113 Principles of Plant Pathology: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: BIO 1134 and Bio 1144 or consent of instructor). Two hours lecture. Three hours laboratory. Acquiring a general knowledge of the principles of plant pathology through a study of selected plant diseases of economic importance for Mississippi

    EPP 6143 Insect Ecology: 3 hours.

    Three hours lecture. Interaction of insects with their environment, including behavioral ecology, abiotic influences, population dynamics, species interactions, and effects of insects on ecosystem structure and function

    EPP 6152 Advanced Fungal Taxonomy-Fungi Imperfecti: 2 hours.

    (Prerequisite:Consent of Instructor). One hour lecture. Two hours laboratory. Methods and practice in identification of taxon-fungi imperfecti in different ecosystems. Includes conventional macroscopic and microscopic techniques for identification compared with molecular methods

    EPP 6154 General Entomology: 4 hours.

    Two hours lecture. Four hours laboratory. Fall semester. Biology of insects including morphology, physiology, development, ecology and emphasis on classification of orders and common families

    EPP 6162 Advanced Fungal Taxonomy-Ascomycetes: 2 hours.

    (Prerequisite: Consent of Instructor).One hour lecture. Two hours laboratory.Methods and practice in identification of taxon-ascomycetes in different ecosystems. Includes conventional macroscopic and microscopic techniques for identification compared with molecular methods

    EPP 6163 Plant Disease Management: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 4113/6113 or consent of instructor). Two hours lecture. Three hours laboratory. Techniques and fundamentals of plant disease management. Disease dynamics related to management, avoidance, exclusion, eradication of pathogens principles of plant protection, spraying techniques biological control. Spring semester

    EPP 6164 Insect Taxonomy: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 4154). Two hours lecture. Six hours laboratory. Spring semester. Advanced study of insect classification

    EPP 6172 Advanced Fungal Taxonomy-Fleshy Basidiomycetes: 2 hours.

    (Prerequisite: Consent of Instructor). One hour lecture. Two hours laboratory. Methods and practice in identification of taxon-basidiomycetes in different ecosystems.Includes conventional mascroscopic and microscopic techniques for identification compared with molecular methods

    EPP 6173 Medical and Veterinary Entomology: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite:EPP 4154 or consent of instructor). Two hours lecture. Two hour laboratory. Exxentials of the biology, disease relationships, surveillance, and control of arthropods parastitic on humans and animals in the context of clincal and preventive medicine

    EPP 6182 Advanced Fungal Taxonomy-Oomycetes and Zygomycetes: 2 hours.

    (Prerequisites: Consent of Instructor ). One hour lecture. Two hour laboratory. Methods and practice in identification of taxon-oomycetes and zygomycetes in different ecosystems. Includes conventional macroscopic and microscopic techniques for identification compared with molecular methods

    EPP 6214 Diseases of Crops: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisites: EPP 3113 or 3124). Three hours lecture. Two hours laboratory. Fundamentals and practical aspects of identification and control of selected diseases of crop plants grown in the southern U.S. Spring semester

    EPP 6234 Field Crop Insects: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 2213 or 4154). Three hours lecture. Two hours laboratory. Fall semester. Recognition, biology, distribution, damage, economic importance and methods of control of insect pests of agronomic and horticultural crops

    EPP 6244 Aquatic Entomology: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisites: EPP 4154 or instructors approval). Three hours lecture. Two hours laboratory. Study of basic biological and ecological principles important to aquatic insects and related arthropods, including life histories, evolutionary adaptations, community and species and identification

    EPP 6254 Introduction to Mycology: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisite: BIO 1134 or consent of instructor). Two hours lecture. Four hours laboratory. Subjects include fungal structures, function and physiology, reproduction, genetics, emphasis in taxonomy and influence of reproductive stages of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes on plant and forest ecosystems

    EPP 6263 Principles of Insect Pest Management: 3 hours.

    Two hours lecture. Two hours laboratory. Discussion of pest management concepts, insect control methods, sampling, and pest management systems. Laboratory involves sampling, calibration and other exercises related to pest management

    EPP 6264 Advanced Mycology: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisite: BIO 1134 or consent of instructor). Two hours lecture. Four hours laboratory. Subjects include fungal structures, function and physiology, reproduction, genetics, and taxonomy of Oomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota (Glomeromycota) and other phyla on plant and forest ecosystems

    EPP 6313 Forensic Entomology: 3 hours.

    Two hours lecture. Two hours laboratory. Introduction to the identification and ecology of insects and other arthropods associated with corpses/carrion and related materials in the context of forensic science

    EPP 6333 Principles of Insect Anatomy and Physiology: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 4154). Three hours lecture. Spring semester. Introduction to the basic principles of structure and function of insect organ systems from a comparative and evolutionary viewpoint

    EPP 6523 Turfgrass Diseases: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 3113 or 3124) Two hours lecture Three hours laboratory. Study of the life cycle, damage, economic importance and control startegies of turfgrass diseases

    EPP 6543 Toxicology and Insecticide Chemistry: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: Organic Chemistry). Two hours lecture. Two hours laboratory. Spring semester. Chemistry, toxicity and mode of action of major groups of insecticides. Laboratory bioassay methods, insecticide interactions, calculations

    EPP 6613 Forensic Entomology: 3 hours.

    Two hours lecture. Two hours Laboratory. Introduction to the identification and ecology of insects and other arthropods associated with corpses/carrion and related materials in the context of forensic science

    EPP 6990 Special Topics in Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-9 hours.

    Credit and title to be arranged. This course is to be used on a limited basis to offer developing subject matter areas not covered in existing courses. (Courses limited to two offerings under one title within two academic years)

    EPP 7000 Directed Individual Study in Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-6 hours.

    Hours and credits to be arranged

    EPP 8000 Thesis Research/ Thesis in Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-13 hours.

    Thesis Research/Thesis. Hours and credits to be arranged

    EPP 8111 Seminar: 1 hour.

    Consideration of recent advances and problems in Entomology and Plant Pathology student participation, general discussion

    EPP 8113 Plant Nematology: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 3113). Two hours lecture. Three hours laboratory. Basic morphology, taxonomy, and nomenclature discussion of plant pathogenic general, symptomatology, methods of isolation, control methods, and interrelationship of nematodes to other plant pathogens. Fall semester, even years

    EPP 8121 Seminar: 1 hour.

    Consideration of recent advances and problems in Entomology and Plant Pathology student participation, general discussion

    EPP 8123 Plant Virology: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 4133/6133 or equivalent). Two hours lecture. Three hours laboratory. Morphology and structure of infectious entity characteristics of plant virus groups including symptomatology, transmission, vectors, etc. Methods of assay and purification. Spring semester, even years

    EPP 8133 Plant Bacteriology: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite:EPP 4113,EPP 6133 or consent of instructor). Two hours lecture. Three hours Laboratory. Morphology, biology and taxonomy of plant-associated bacteria and physio-biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in their interactions with plants development and management of plant bacterial diseases

    EPP 8143 Advanced Plant Pathology I: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 3113). Three hours lecture. The dynamic nature of disease. Genetics and variability of the major groups of plant pathogens. Epidemiology. Genetics of the host-parasitic interaction. Fall semesters

    EPP 8144 Transmission Electro Microscopy: 4 hours.

    (Prerequisite:Consent of Instructor). One hour lecture. Six hours laboratory. Introduction to TEM including life sciences (tissue) and engineering (crystalline materials) topics. (Same as ME 8144)

    EPP 8173 Clinical Plant Pathology: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: EPP 3113 and EPP 4114). Two four-hour laboratories. Clinical techniques, procedures, and experience in diagnosing plant diseases in the laboratory and field. Covers diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, MLO, nematodes, unfavorable environment and viruses. Summer

    EPP 8223 Scanning Electron Microscopy: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: Graduate Student, consent of instructor). Two hours lecture. Three hours laboratory . Fall semester. Introduction to scanning electron microscopy and associated techniques

    EPP 8253 Advanced Plant Pathology II: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: EPP 4113/6113, BIO 4214/6214, or consent of instructor). Three hours lecture. Infection processes, weapons utilized by pathogens in attack, and resultant alterations in ultrastructure, function and metabolism

    EPP 8263 Insect Rearing: Principles and Procedures: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 2213, EPP 4154, or instructor permission.) Two hours lecture. Two hours laboratory. Principles and procedures for hearing high quality insects including safety, genetics environments, diets, diet contamination, disease, and quality control

    EPP 8273 Empirical Research in Theory and Practice: 3 hours.

    Three hours lecture. Introduction to the nature, process, and societal role of research scientific method, experimental design, proposal writing, publishing, and ethics. Course emphasizes the intuitive understanding and practical application of quantitative analyses, including written, visual, and oral presentation of methods and results

    EPP 8333 Advanced Toxicology: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisite: EPP 4543. Three hours lecture. Fall semester. Physiological and biochemical actions of pesticides and therapeutic drugs. Pesticide metabolism and resistance. Insecticide synergism. Natural toxins and venoms. (Same as PHY 8333)

    EPP 8343 Advances in Insect Anatomy-Structure and Function: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: General entomology (EPP 4154/6154) and/ or Insect taxonomy (EPP 4164/6164) or consent of instructor). Three credit course for upper-level graduate students with basic background in entomology. Advances in knowledge of insect anatomy, functional morphology and terminology associated with it. Evolutionary aspects of insect form and function

    EPP 8353 Advances in Insect Physiology and Biochemistry: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: General entomology (EPP 4154/6154) and/ or Insect taxonomy (EPP 4164/6164) or consent of instructor). Three credits course for upper-level graduate students with basic background in entomology and biochemistry. This advanced course will examine the major biochemical and molecular bases of the processes and functions of insect systems

    EPP 8483 Ecological Genetics: 3 hours.

    (Prerequisites: PO 3103 or equivalent and BIO 4113/6113 or consent of instructor). Three hours lecture. Spring semester, odd-numbered years. Introduction to the application of genetic methods and theory to the study of adaptation in natural populations. (Same as GNS 8483)

    EPP 8990 Special Topics in Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-9 hours.

    Credit and title to be arranged. This course is to be used on a limited basis to offer developing subject matter areas not covered in existing courses. (Courses limited to two offerings under one title within two academic years)

    EPP 9000 Dissertation Research /Dissertation in Entomology and Plant Pathology: 1-13 hours.

    Hours and credits to be arranged

    Mississippi State, MS 39762 | 662.325.2323
    © 2012 Mississippi State University. All rights reserved.


    Watch the video: Lucents Biology. Chapter 23- Plant Morphology Part-1 - Dr. Chitra Varu (May 2022).