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I found a singular mushroom in my back yard, It is jet black, seems to have gills and looks somewhat like a flower do to it's upturned-ness. Sorry for not having spore colors, but I didn't want to disturb it. I will post a picture soon. I found this mushroom at 4/11/15 and it disappeared the next day. I'm just south of San Antonio.
The mushroom suggestive for one of the inki ones of Coprinus family, especially Coprinus comatus. The black color can be very intensive in some stage of their development, since it is a part of the spread mechanism.
"Members of the genus Coprinus have been collectively known as the "inky caps" because of the curious character of autodeliquescence of their gills-- in other words self-digestion to release their basidiospores. Most of these species have gills that are very thin and very close to one another, which does not allow for easy release of the spores. Moreover the elongated shape of mushroom does not allow for the spores to be shot off the basidia and get caught in air currents as in most other mushrooms. Coprinus species "compensate" for this by a sequential maturation of the spores from the bottom of the gill towards the top. After the spores have matured and been released, the gill tissue digests itself and begins to curl up, allowing easy release of the basidiospores above. In other words, the digestion opens up the fruiting body so that spores from further up the gills become exposed to the air and a clear path of spore release. The self-digestion continues until the entire fruiting body has turned to black ink. In the olden days this ink was actually used for writing. The self-digestion is also a way of releasing the spores over a longer period of time, and allowing the release of spores from very closely spaced narrow gills borne inside a longitudinally tall pileus. If any Coprinus species are collected for eating or for scientific study, they must be cooked or dried right away, since the self-digesting enzymes seem to kick into high gear after the mushroom is removed from its substrate. They're pretty easy to find too-- the genus name Coprinus gives you a pretty good idea where to look for these mushrooms-- in dung or very rich organic soil."
A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on its food source.
The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus hence the word "mushroom" is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap. "Mushroom" also describes a variety of other gilled fungi, with or without stems, therefore the term is used to describe the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface.
Forms deviating from the standard morphology usually have more specific names, such as "bolete", "puffball", "stinkhorn", and "morel", and gilled mushrooms themselves are often called "agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order Agaricales. By extension, the term "mushroom" can also refer to either the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus (called a mycelium) of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself.
Dosing Shrooms: How is Potency Measured?
The potency of psychedelic mushrooms is measured by the amount of psilocybin present. Psilocin, a psychedelic metabolite of psilocybin, also contributes to the overall potency profile of a mushroom species. According to Paul Stamets’ foundational guide to mushroom identification, Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World, it’s helpful to know the species of mushrooms you’re working with along with the high-water-mark potency associated with that species (and this is a great book to keep on your shelf if you’re invested in identification and associated potencies).
Potency may be measured as a percentage of dry weight or in milligrams. Take the commonly consumed species Psilocybe cubensis as an example. A single gram of cubensis that hypothetically contains 0.5 percent psilocybin by dry weight would contain 5 mg—or 0.005 grams—of psilocybin.
Doses used in clinical settings vary. One study utilized doses of 4 mg and 25 mg of psilocybin for participants experiencing anxiety associated with stage IV melanoma. Doses of 10 mg and 25 mg were studied for treatment-resistant depression. Point being, researchers are still figuring out the right dose for different people and for different purposes.
What Is the Scientific Classification of Mushrooms?
All mushrooms belong to the Fungi kingdom, however their phylum, class, family, and genus vary according to the mushroom type. Oyster mushrooms, meadow mushrooms and button mushrooms all have different scientific classifications.
This is an example of the scientific classification of an oyster mushroom:
Species: Pleurotus ostreatus
This is an example of the scientific classification of a button or white mushroom:
Species: Agaricus Bisporus
This is an example of a scientific classification for a meadow mushroom:
Species: Agaricus campestris
Other mushroom species have a multitude of different classifications. Although all mushrooms share some similarities, they are a very diverse species.
The most important cause for this really is the fact that fungal ailments are pretty serious.
In addition, the field of fungal biology deals using a range of fungus, each with its personal characteristics and wants. Because of this, it truly is not merely critical to get to understand the several types of fungus, but in addition to know how to remove them. Um superior fully grasp the subject, we need to first take care of his definition. Mushrooms are basically a fungus along with the name itself.
It really is a sort of fungi that grows by breaking organic materials then releases spurs. The actual course of action of fungal growth might vary according to the forms involved, however the finish result is usually the exact same – spores has to be released to restore. The actual process, through which these spurs is released, is often complicated and slow, or it could involve quite uncomplicated procedures that only call for our attention. Pilies are grouped as outlined by their distinctive types and also in the kinds determined by the components, which define their growth circumstances.
You’ll find even kinds of mushrooms classified right after their cabling paraphrase citation from website (d. H. Safran farmers), determined by their appearance (coarse or in order) and also on the merchandise they make (for instance cheese). Understanding these variations assists us improved know the nature from the many ailments that influence mushrooms and the best way to take care of them. Plenty of variables that define mushrooms is their environment plus the type of milieu in which they grow.
This https://www.unplagiarizer.com/the-best-unplagiarize-tool-to-paraphrase-your-text/ involves the kind of soil and weather patterns which might be prevalent within a distinct location exactly where the mushrooms grow. Some mushrooms are most effective developing inside a cool and damp atmosphere, though other folks develop very best within a warm and dry atmosphere. One other element that affects the spread of fungal diseases is definitely the water level present within the ground, in which the mushrooms develop. The fungi, which infect mushrooms may also be categorized in line with their reproductive modes. Some mushrooms develop and reproduce themselves by way of the usage of sexual shapes like spores.
Other fungi reproducing via the use of an organ referred to as Mycology (a SPORE) containing the genetic material that is required for multiplying and development from the fungus.
What is this mushroom? - Biology
Mushroom Taxonomy: The Big Picture
I frequently receive e-mails from frantic biology students who have been asked to discover the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species of a certain mushroom. Here, with the student's typo included, is the most entertaining example I've received so far:
Aside from recommending that the student might want to find a new professor, I replied that the taxonomical hierarchy for Armillaria ostoyae is:
. . . in the traditional, and now probably outdated, system. Armillaria has been reconceived within the past few years, resulting in the elimination of what the student called " Armillariella ," and placing the genus in the Marasmiaceae rather than the Tricholomataceae also, there is debate about whether or not the kingdom and phylum distinctions should be made at some other level in the hierarchy.
- Note, 2011: This text was originally written in 2003. As a further demonstration of some of my points in this essay, the genus Armillaria has now been placed in the Physalacriaceae, and the species "Armillaria ostoyae" no longer exists, since it has been synonymized with an older species ( Armillaria solidipes )!
But uncertainty is not what professors want on homework assignments. The problem is that there is no "correct" answer to the professor's question. Or, better said, the answer to the question changes constantly, and has been changing ever since Linnaeus started using Latin names to arrange organisms.
Though it is a fact usually unobserved in introductory biology classes, taxonomy does not represent organisms. Rather, taxonomy represents how we perceive and organize organisms. This is a very important difference. It is the difference, for example, between what happened at the scene of the crime, and what the witness saw happen at the scene of the crime--and anyone who has ever watched a courtroom drama knows how different these two things can be.
In my field (I am an English teacher), the rules of grammar and punctuation are seen by most teachers as unchanging and universal. Students are "wrong" if they omit the apostrophe from don't , or write "Everyday someone gets their lunch." Yet there was a time--not that long ago, from a historical perspective--when dont was perfectly correct, and the time is coming (or is already here) when this use of everyday and their is correct. People of my mother's generation physically cringe when they hear "their" used like this. People of my generation notice a problem, but use it anyway as a substitute for the sexist "his." My students don't even notice. Within my lifetime, the language has changed, as a result of a change in our culture: we became more aware of sexism, and less comfortable using masculine pronouns as universal pronouns.
With grammar and punctuation, however, the rule makers usually lag far behind the general population. This is because the rule makers (the authors and publishers of dictionaries and grammar handbooks) are conservative by nature, and often see themselves as corrective agents, holding back the masses and saving them from their mistakes. But with taxonomy, things are reversed. It is the mycologists, in the case of mushrooms, who are constantly changing things, and the general population that lags behind. Thus, I must provide the biology student above with an answer I know to be incorrect, knowing that her professor is likely working from outdated information.
Once, mushroom taxonomy was an arrangement of mushrooms based on their physical appearance. This one had gills, so it belonged in a group with other gilled mushrooms, while another mushroom, this one with pores, belonged in a different group. For well over a hundred years, advances in mushroom taxonomy simply represented more careful attention to the physical features of the mushrooms--and, importantly, the fact that more and more mushrooms from around the world were being sent to scientists in northern Europe. These scientists began to discover that closer examination revealed other groupings. Some of the gilled mushrooms had white spore prints, for example, and gills that were attached to the stem. New families and genera were named species were placed in the hierarchy accordingly.
Then, roughly a hundred years ago, scientists began looking at mushrooms with microscopes. Some mycologists had been doing so earlier, but the hegemony of microscope mycology didn't take hold until the 20th century. As a result, new groupings emerged. These mushrooms, for example, had ornamented spores, indicating that they formed a group separate from other mushrooms that looked more or less the same to the naked eye, but had smooth spores. As microscopes got better and better, more taxonomical changes were made.
It is important to recall that the mushrooms themselves did not change during this brief history what changed was the way we examined them. New technologies and methods of analysis--like studies of chemical composition, mating studies, and (especially) DNA analysis--are hegemonic these days, and they are resulting in radical changes in mushroom taxonomy. Groups that we once thought were related, based on physical appearance or microscopic features, are turning out to be unrelated. But it is likely--I would say it is a certainty--that future mycologists will decide our contemporary taxonomic arrangements are inaccurate.
I offer these comments by way of introducing the table below, which represents how mycologists currently see taxonomical relationships between mushrooms. I have culled the information from Ainsworth & Bisby's 2008 Dictionary of the Fungi (see the notes below for a complete citation), and I have included only "mushroom" taxonomy--omitting the details on rusts, yeasts, lichens, molds, and so on. The editors of the Dictionary , of course, compiled information from peer-reviewed papers published in scientific journals it should come as no surprise that editing such a compilation involves attempting to "standardize" things that have not yet become standards, resolving taxonomical conflicts that are often hotly debated, and so on. Yet Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary has become more or less the definitive standard for mushroom taxonomy for better or worse, the biology student must consult this source to get the "best" current answer to a taxonomy question.
The Taxonomic Hierarchy of Kingdom Fungi
. . . based on Ainsworth & Bisby's 2008 Dictionary of the Fungi (10th. edition)
Only genera treated at MushroomExpert.Com are included. See the notes at the bottom of the page for additional information and suggestions.
|Class: Arthoniomycetes (lichens . . .)|
|Genera treated: Apiosporina (see A. morbosa )|
|Genera treated: Geoglossum (see G. umbratile ), Hemileucoglossum (see H. alveolatum )|
|Class: Eurotiomycetes (includes Penicillium . . . )|
|Class: Laboulbeniomycetes (insect parasites and others . . . )|
|Class: Lecanoromycetes (lichens . . . )|
|Class: Leotiomycetes (inoperculate Discomycetes + powdery mildews)|
|Order: Erysiphales (powdery mildews)|
|Genera treated: Chlorosplenium (see C. chlora )|
|Genera treated: Hymenoscyphus (see H. fructigenus ) possibly also Ascocoryne (see A. sarcoides ), Bisporella (see B. citrina ), Chlorociboria (see C. aeruginascens ), and Ionomidotis (see I. irregularis )|
|Genera treated: Chlorencoelia (see C. torta )|
|Genera treated: Lachnellula (see L. subtilissima )|
|Genera treated: Bulgaria (see B. inquinans )|
|Genera treated: Leotia (see L. lubrica ), Microglossum (see M. viride )|
|Genera treated: Cudonia (see C. circinans), Spathularia (see S. flavida), Spathulariopsis (see S. velutipes)|
|Genera treated: Colpoma (see C. quercinum)|
|Genera treated: Caloscypha (see C. fulgens)|
|Genera treated: Chorioactis (see C. geaster) , Wolfina (see W. aurantiopsis)|
|Genera treated: Gyromitra|
|Genera treated: Helvella|
|Genera treated: Disciotis (see D. venosa), Morchella, Verpa (see V. bohemica )|
|Genera treated: Pachyella (see P. clypeata), Peziza (see P. repanda), Sarcosphaera (see S. coronaria )|
|Genera treated: Aleuria (see A. aurantia), Cheilymenia (see C. stercorea), Geopora (see G. cooperi), Geopyxis (see G. carbonaria), Humaria (see H. hemisphaerica), Jafnea (see J. semitosta), Otidea (see O. onotica), Scutellinia (see S. scutellata), Sowerbyella (see S. rhenana), Sphaerosporella (see S. brunnea), Tarzetta (see T. bronca )|
|Genera treated: Microstoma (see M. floccosum), Sarcoscypha|
|Genera treated: Galiella (see G. rufa), Urnula (see U. craterium )|
|Genera treated: Tuber (see T. lyonii )|
|[Most " Pyrenomycetes ," in 15 orders, 64 families, and over 1000 genera. Genera treated: Akanthomyces (see A. aculeatus ), Biscogniauxia (see B. atropunctata ), Camarops (see C. petersii ), Cordyceps (see C. militaris ), Daldinia (see D. childiae ), Hypomyces , Kretzschmaria (see K. deusta ), Trichoderma (see T. peltatum ), Xylaria . . . ]|
|Genera treated: Geoglossum (see G. umbratile )|
|Subphyllum: Saccharomycotina (yeasts . . . )|
|Subphyllum: Taphrinomycotina (galls, witches' brooms, Neolecta . . . )|
|Genera treated: Calocera (see C. cornea ), Dacrymyces (see D. stillatus ), Dacryopinax (see D. elegans ), Femsjonia (see F. peziziformis ), Guepiniopsis (see G. alpina )|
|Genera treated: Syzygospora (see S. mycetophila )|
|Genera treated: Phaeotremella (see P. frondosa )|
|Genera treated: Tremella (see T. mesenterica )|
|Genera treated: Agaricus, Arachnion (see A. album), Battarrea (see B. phalloides), Bovista (see B. longispora), Calvatia (see C. craniiformis), Chlorophyllum (see C. molybdites), Coprinus (see C. comatus), Crucibulum (see C. laeve), Cyathus (see C. striatus), Cystoderma, Cystolepiota (see C. seminuda ), Floccularia, Lepiota (see L. cristata), Leucoagaricus (see L. naucinus), Leucocoprinus (see L. birnbaumii), Lycoperdon (see L. pulcherrimum), Macrolepiota (see M. procera), Morganella (see M. pyriformis), Mycenastrum (see M. corium ), Nidularia (see N. pulvinata), Podaxis (see P. longii), Ripartitella (see R. brasiliensis), Tulostoma (see T. lloydii ), Vascellum (see V. curtisii )|
|Genera treated: Amanita, Limacella|
|Genera treated: Bolbitius (see B. titubans), Conocybe (see C. apala), Pholiotina (see P. rugosa)|
|Genera treated: Clavaria (see C. vermicularis), Clavulinopsis (see C. laeticolor) , Ramariopsis (see R. kunzei )|
|Genera treated: Cortinarius|
|Genera treated: Clitopilus (see C. prunulus), Entoloma, Rhodocybe (see R. mundula)|
|Genera treated: Fistulina (see F. hepatica ), Pseudofistulina (see P. radicata )|
|Genera treated: Laccaria|
|Genera treated: Ampulloclitocybe (see A. clavipes), Chrysomphalina (see C. chrysophylla), Cuphophyllus (see C. pratensis), Gliophorus (see G. psittacinus), Hygrocybe (see H. conica), Hygrophorus ( see H. russula), Lichenomphalia ( see L. umbellifera), Neohygrocybe ( see N. ovina)|
|Genera treated: Crepidotus, Flammulaster (see F. erinaceella), Inocybe, Simocybe (see S. centunculus) possibly Panaeolus|
|Genera treated: Asterophora (see A. lycoperdoides), Calocybe (see C. carnea), Hypsizygus (see H. tessulatus), Lyophyllum (see L. decastes) , Rugosomyces (see R. onychinus )|
|Genera treated: Baeospora (see B. myosura ), Clitocybula (see C. abundans), Connopus (see C. acervatus), Crinipellis (see C. zonata), Gerronema (see G. strombodes), Gymnopus (see G. dryophilus), Macrocystidia (see M. cucumis), Marasmiellus (see M. candidus), Marasmius (see M. rotula), Megacollybia, Micromphale (see M. perforans), Mycetinis (see M. scorodonius), Omphalotus (see O. illudens), Tetrapyrgos (see T. nigripes)|
|Genera treated: Mycena, Panellus (see P. stipticus ) possibly Xeromphalina (see X. kauffmanii )|
|Genera treated: Rhodocollybia (see R. maculata).|
|Genera treated: Armillaria, Cyptotrama (see C. asprata), Flammulina, Rhizomarasmius , Rhodotus (see R. palmatus), Xeruloid Mushrooms (including Hymenopellis and Paraxerula )|
|Genera treated: Hohenbuehelia, Pleurotus (see P. ostreatus )|
|Genera treated: Pluteus, Volvariella, Volvopluteus|
|Genera treated: Coprinellus (see C. disseminatus ), Coprinopsis (see C. atramentaria ), Lacrymaria (see L. velutina), Parasola (see P. plicatilis ), Psathyrella possibly Panaeolus|
|Genera treated: Radulomyces (see R. copelandii )|
|Genera treated: Schizophyllum (see S. commune )|
|Genera treated: Agrocybe, Cyclocybe (see C. erebia), Deconica (see D. argentina), Galerina (see G. marginata), Hebeloma, Hemipholiota ( see H. populnea), Hypholoma, Kuehneromyces ( see K. mutabilis ), Leratiomyces ( see L. ceres), Pholiota, Psilocybe Stropharia ( see S. rugosoannulata) possibly Gymnopilus|
|Genera treated: Tapinella (see T. panuoides )|
|Genera treated: Callistosporium (see C. luteo-olivaceum), Catathelasma, Caulorhiza (see C. umbonata), Clitocybe, Collybia (see C. cirrhata), Dermoloma (see D. cuneifolium), Infundibulicybe, Leucopaxillus, Leucopholiota, Macrocybe (see M. titans), Melanoleuca, Omphalina (see O. epichysium), Pogonoloma (see P. spinulosum), Pseudoclitocybe (see P. cyathiformis), Resupinatus (see R. alboniger), Tricholoma|
|Genera treated: Cyclocybe (see C. erebia).|
|Genera treated: Macrotyphula (see M. juncea).|
|Genera treated: Phyllotopsis (see P. nidulans), Rickenella (see R. fibula also possibly in Hymenochaetales) Tricholomopsis (see T. decora )|
|Genera treated: Auricularia (see A. auricula)|
|Genera treated: Exidia (see E. glandulosa ), Guepinia (see G. helvelloides )|
|Genera treated: Ductifera (see D. pululahuana), Pseudohydnum (see P. gelatinosum )|
|Genera treated: Aureoboletus (see A. mirabilis) , Austroboletus (see A. subflavidus) , Boletellus , Boletus (see B. edulis), Bothia (see B. castanella) , Buchwaldoboletus (see B. hemichrysus) , Butyriboletus (see B. frostii) , Caloboletus (see C. inedulis) , Chalciporus (see C. piperatus) , Harrya (see H. chromapes ), Heimioporus, Hemileccinum (see H. subglabripes), Imleria (see I. badia), Leccinum, Phylloporus, Pseudoboletus (see P. parasiticus), Pulveroboletus (see P. ravenelii), Retiboletus (see R. ornatipes), Rubroboletus (see R. dupainii), Strobilomyces, Tylopilus, Xanthoconium (see X. purpureum ), Xerocomellus (see X. chrysenteron ), Xerocomus (see X. subtomentosus )|
|Genera treated: Boletinellus (see B. merulioides )|
|Genera treated: Astraeus (see A. hygrometricus)|
|Genera treated: Chroogomphus, Gomphidius|
|Genera treated: Gyroporus|
|Genera treated: Hygrophoropsis (see H. aurantiaca )|
|Genera treated: Paragyrodon (see P. sphaerosporus), Paxillus (see P. vernalis )|
|Genera treated: Calostoma (see C. cinnabarinum), Pisolithus (see P. arenarius), Scleroderma|
|Genera treated: Suillus|
|Genera treated: Cantharellus (see C. cibarius), Craterellus (see C. fallax )|
|Genera treated: Clavulina (see C. cristata )|
|Genera treated: Hydnum (see H. repandum )|
|Genera treated: Geastrum (see G. saccatum )|
|Genera treated: Gloeophyllum (see G. sepiarium ), Neolentinus (see N. lepideus )|
|Genera treated: Clavariadelphus (see C. unicolor )|
|Genera treated: Gomphus (see G. clavatus ), Ramaria (see R. botrytis ), Turbinellus (see T. floccosus )|
|Genera treated: Lentaria (see L. micheneri )|
|Genera treated: Coltricia (see C. cinnamomea), Inonotus (see I. radiatus), Phellinus (see P. gilvus ), Porodaedalea (see P. pini )|
|Genera treated: Rickenella (see R. fibula also possibly in Agaricales)|
|Genera treated: Aseröe (see A. rubra), Blumenavia (see B. angolensis), Clathrus (see C. ruber), Colus (see C. hirudinosus), Ileodictyon (see I. cibarium), Laternea (see L. pusilla), Pseudocolus (see P. fusiformis)|
|Genera treated: Lysurus (see L. mokusin), Mutinus (see M. elegans), Phallus (see P. impudicus), Staheliomyces (see S. cinctus )|
|Genera treated: Cerrena (see C. unicolor), "Spongipellis" (see S. unicolor )|
|Genera treated: Antrodia (see A. juniperina ), Daedalea (see D. quercina), Fomitopsis (see F. pinicola), Ischnoderma (see I. resinosum), Osteina (see O. obducta), Piptoporus (see P. betulinus), Pycnoporellus (see P. alboluteus )|
|Genera treated: Grifola (see G. frondosa )|
|Genera treated: Laetiporus , Phaeolus (see P. schweinitzii )|
|Genera treated: Meripilus (see M. giganteus )|
|Genera treated: Bjerkandera (see B. adusta), Gloeoporus (see G. dichrous), Irpex (see I. lacteus), Mycorrhaphium (see M. adustum), Phlebia (see P. incarnata), Podoscypha (see P. aculeata), Steccherinum (see S. ochraceum )|
|Genera treated: Panus (see P. conchatus )|
|Genera treated: Climacodon (see C. septentrionale ), Hapalopilus (see H. nidulans), Phlebiopsis (see P. crassa)|
|Genera treated: Abortiporus (see A. biennis )|
|Genera treated: Coriolopsis (see C. gallica), Cryptoporus (see C. volvatus), Daedaleopsis (see D. confragosa), Fomes (see F. fomentarius), Ganoderma (see G. sessile ), Globifomes (see G. graveolens ), Hexagonia (see H. hydnoides), Lentinus (see L. tigrinus), Lenzites (see L. betulina), Microporellus (see M. dealbatus), Neofavolus (see N. alveolaris), Nigroporus (see N. vinosus), Perenniporia (see P. ohiensis), Polyporus (see P. squamosus), Poronidulus, Pycnoporus (see P. cinnabarinus), Pyrofomes (see P. juniperinus), Trametes (see T. versicolor), Trichaptum (see T. biforme), Tyromyces (see T. chioneus )|
|Genera treated: Sparassis (see S. crispa )|
|Genera treated: Albatrellus (see A. cristatus )|
|Genera treated: Artomyces (see Artomyces pyxidatus), Auriscalpium (see A. vulgare), Lentinellus|
|Genera treated: Bondarzewia (see B. berkeleyi), Heterobasidion (see H. annosum )|
|Genera treated: Hericium|
|Genera treated: Peniophora (see P. rufa )|
|Genera treated: Arcangeliella (see A. desjardinii), Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, Zelleromyces (see Z. cinnabarinus)|
|Genera treated: Aleurodiscus (see A. oakesii), Stereum (see S. ostrea), Xylobolus (see X. frustulatus )|
|Genera treated: Helvellosebacina (see H. concrescens ), Sebacina (see S. incrustans ), Tremellodendron (see T. schweinitzii )|
|Genera treated: Boletopsis (see B. leucomelaena ), Hydnellum, Phellodon (see P. confluens), Sarcodon (see S. imbricatus )|
|Genera treated: Polyozellus (see P. multiplex ), Thelephora (see T. multipartita )|
|Genera treated: Tremellodendropsis (see T. tuberosa )|
Subphyllum: Pucciniomycotina (rusts . . . see Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae )
|Subphyllum: Ustilaginomycotina (smuts . . . )|
Phylum: Chytridiomycota (aquatic fungi . . . )
|Phylum: Glomeromycota (endomycorrhizal fungi . . . )|
|Phylum: Microsporidia (spore-forming parasites that lack flagellae . . . )|
|Phylum: Zygomycota (various saprobes, parasites, and others . . . )|
I have done my best to avoid typing mistakes in the table above, but I ask you to imagine typing " Hypsizygus, Syzygospora , Rhynchogastremataceae," and the like for hours on end with no recourse to a spell-checker. If you find a mistake, please drop me a line I will appreciate knowing it.
How Do Mushrooms Get Their Food?
Mushrooms are the visible, above-ground extensions of a much larger underground network of fungal tissue that absorbs nutrients directly from the surrounding soil. The exterior surface of a fungus is analogous to the interior surface of an animal's stomach. It secretes digestive enzymes and absorbs the resulting chemical soup directly.
By the time a mushroom emerges above ground, the fungus has usually been feeding in place for some time. Fungi send out specialized tendrils, or hyphae, into the soil and plants around them to expose a maximum of surface area to the surrounding environment. These hyphae then secrete the necessary proteins directly onto the edible matter. These proteins then do the work of breaking down plant and animal tissues chemically until the nutrients locked away in their bodies are liberated. This leaves the food supply partially liquefied and oozing over the surface of the fungus. Exterior cells of the fungus can then directly absorb the desired nutrients without the need for a distinct digestive system. Generally, this work is only done by the nonreproductive components of a fungus. The mushroom's ultimate goal is not to eat but to release spores that can spread the fungus far and wide to begin the process anew in a different location.
Is Eating Mushrooms Good For You?
For nutritional purposes, the US Department of Agriculture classifies mushrooms as vegetables. This is because they contain many of the same nutritional benefits that vegetables offer.
But they also offer many nutrients that are less-commonly found in vegetables.
For example, mushrooms are also a good source of vitamin D, B vitamins, niacin, selenium, copper, and pantothenic acid. So they help to bridge the gap between nutrients available in plants, grains, and meat.
There are a wide variety of different kinds of edible mushrooms. They all have their own unique textures, shapes, flavors, as well as nutritional profiles.
Mushrooms can also be considered an adaptogenic food. That means they help your body deal with various kinds of stress and help to promote normal physical function.
Many mushroom species like chaga and lion’s mane can be used to boost your immune system.
The compounds that mushrooms contain are great at neutralizing free radicals, which are molecules that can wreak havoc on your body and lead to cancer and other nasty diseases.
Even dogs can eat mushrooms for healthy nutrition. Learn which mushrooms are safe for dogs to eat.
In fact, button mushrooms are even better than vegetables like green beans, tomatoes, carrots, and peppers when it comes to antioxidant content.
The best part is that the antioxidants contained in mushrooms aren’t destroyed or inactivated when cooked.
On mushrooms and not missing the forest for the trees
As Alija Mujic, assistant professor in the Department of Biology at Fresno State, can tell you, the forest isn’t just the trees.
There’s a lot more going on. And he would know. His research is on mycorrhizal fungi — fungi that grow in a mutually beneficial relationship with plants.
“It’s true that the plants around us depend on microbes like fungi to live and grow,” he said. “Trees in particular cannot survive without their fungi.”
That relationship is really what fascinated him about mushrooms.
“Every living system, every living thing, especially macroscopic organisms, like ourselves, we’re utterly reliant upon the microbiology that we’ve evolved with,” he said. “You can’t separate us, functionally, as organisms.”
People are generally interested in the forest, he noted, but the forest is so much more than just the trees … it’s also all the microbes that support it, like the mushrooms. A healthy forest needs its microbes.
“I started getting interested in the ecological aspects of how these mushrooms support the health of forests, and why they’re important in restoration to mitigate urban development,” Dr. Mujic said. “The first thing you have to do is reestablish the microbiology of the soil.”
A big part of what he studies is how mycorrhizal fungi have a mutually beneficial (aka a mutualism) relationship with trees, especially ectomycorrhizae, which tend to associate with woody trees in the pine and oak families. The beneficial exchange of nutrients interests him: mushrooms get sugars they need from the trees, and the trees benefit from the way mushrooms exponentially increase the surface area of their roots.
“Fungi are unicellular filaments that run through the soil,” he said. “And their surface area is many orders of magnitude greater than that of what a plant could achieve on its own.”
Interestingly, while most people think of mushrooms as having a stem and a cap, not all fungi classified as mushrooms fit that preconception. Some just have a little crust on the soil, and others have a little cup-like fruit. Yes, the mushrooms that you see in the grocery store are the fruit. The actual organism itself is a fine network of unicellular filaments that run through the soil.
“These filaments are called the mycelium and they are the body of the fungus — A mycelium is to a mushroom what an apple tree is to an apple,” he said.
Mushrooms are pretty good at what they do — in particular, in producing enzymes that break down plant tissue.
“Fungi are the master decomposers, far more than bacteria, far more than any other microbe,” he said. “They can even break down lignin (a major component of wood), which is very resistant to decomposition. Fungi can actually eat crude oil, because it’s basically just plant hydrocarbons.”
Why does Dr. Mujic have this interest in mushrooms and fungi in the first place? Primarily because it is unusual.
“I’ve always been a person who’s been drawn to stuff that’s different,” he said. “But more than anything, it’s because I really like to eat. I really like to cook. I was looking for new ways of finding new ingredients, and I got really interested in collecting wild plants and mushrooms.”
After college, his first career was in the catering business. He was given a choice at one point between heading a kitchen at a local restaurant or taking a job in environmental restoration. His degree was in environmental sciences and ecology at the time, yet he was tempted to stay with cuisine.
“But I was really passionate about working with ecology, native spaces, and forests,” he said. “So I took the path not to be a chef. However, I was a chef before I was a scientist. It’s still my passion and my hobby to cook.”
Finding new ingredients is what led him to mushrooms growing in the wild.
“The idea that this has been under my nose this whole time and I didn’t even know it … are you kidding?” he said.
As an undergraduate student, he hunted for mushrooms right on the UC Santa Cruz campus, within a stone’s throw of a friend’s apartment, and that’s how he got hooked. Then he became involved with the Fungus Federation of Santa Cruz club.
“Mushroom hunting is a popular hobby, especially in urban areas. I think a lot of people in urban environments are trying to find ways to reconnect with nature. It’s really young and hip,” he said. “Foraging food from nature is particularly big. A lot of what you think of as traditional country values are being recapitulated in young city kids.”
Hunting wild mushrooms is something that attracts numerous people, but Dr. Mujic doesn’t recommend that anyone jump right into it. For safety purposes, you need sufficient training.
“I’m not giving you advice with the intention of telling you to go eat something,” he said. “All mushrooms should be identified by an expert. Ideally, that expert shoud be you! You should never, ever eat a mushroom that you’re not 100 percent sure about.”
Dr. Mujic and his students have started their own mushroom hunting club, the Fresno Mycology Society.
“There are mushroom hunting clubs in nearly every major city near the coasts, especially where there are more forests and it’s more humid.,” he said. “Mycology has always been a science which is driven forward by amateur contributions.”
At first, he was just interested in food and medicine. “I’ve always been interested in herbalism,” he said. “I got into wild foraging in the first place because I wanted to learn how to pick medicinal herbs.”
But then he started asking so many detailed questions about mushrooms from his teachers that one finally told him that maybe he should consider a career in that direction.
By training, Dr. Mujic is a laboratory geneticist, and he and his students study the genetics of fungi. With the advent of sequencing technology, he can study mushrooms in the lab.
“We use molecular genetic techniques, primarily with nucleic acids, DNA, and some RNA,” he said. “One of the real cores of what we do in the lab is systematics. We extract DNA from fungi, we determine their evolutionary relationships, and we use those to help understand their ecology.”
He and his students look at how different environmental conditions affect the community structure of fungi, focusing on mycorrhizal species.
“My students are doing a lot of field work,” he said. “They go out mushroom hunting with me and look for fungi. In the foothills, mushrooms are fruiting right now.”
A big part of what Dr. Mujic and his students do is computational biology, performing various analyses.
He and his students study the molecular interactions that govern the sharing of nutrients between fungi and plants, and how they communicate through the root connections that they make.
“We do a lot of whole genome sequencing,” he said. “And RNA sequencing.”
Mushrooms are fun, but Dr. Mujic’s real specialty is studying truffles, particularly Rhizopogon, which are little mushrooms that grow underground.
“Most people have heard of the European gourmet truffles, like the French black truffle, that are highly prized by chefs and gourmets. What most people don’t realize is that there are actually a many species of gourmet edible truffles that grow all over the world and some of them can be found right here in California,” he said.
He is currently interested in exploring the possibility of co-cropping pecan crops and gourmet edible truffles with local pecan farmers in the Valley.
We all know the importance of having a strong immune system. Quite simply, when the immune system remains healthy, you remain healthy. But when the immune system is compromised, the natural killer cells become weak and aren’t able to destroy and keep cancer cells in check, allowing cancer to spread. The Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM) mushroom is turning some heads because of its ability to support your immune system.
I first became aware of this medicinal mushroom after seeing positive cytotoxic reactions (kills cancer cells) in the Greece Test results of many of my clients. I did a bit of research and was quite impressed with the effectiveness of this particular mushroom.
ABM mushrooms are used in oncological therapy in Japan and Brazil and are associated with wiping out Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma, sigmoid colonic cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and liver cancer as well as solid cancers.
As you continue your healing journey and focus on Letting Food Be Your Medicine (Essential #1), you may want to learn more about this edible mushroom.
So what does this mushroom have that makes it so special?
Scientists discovered ABM mushrooms while investigating why natives in Sao Paolo, Brazil enjoy long lifetimes. What they found is that ABM mushrooms contain:
- , which are long-chain polysaccharides(complex sugars) known to stimulate the immune system and reduce inflammation
- Derivatives of ergosteroal, a potent anti-tumor agent , an anti-viral agent
- Proteoglycans and protein bound polysaccharides, which are immune enhancers
- Plus, vitamins (especially vitamin D), minerals, antioxidants, amino acids, digestive enzymes – a total of 192 nutrients which make it a very strong adaptogen to bring the body into homeostasis
And the studies say…
While ABM mushrooms encapsulate all these essentials, the studies including ABM exhibit its powerful potential for healing cancer.
- : Cancer patients undergoing chemo were split into two groups with one group taking ABM and the other a placebo. In three to six weeks, natural killer cells were significantly more active. In addition, ABM patients experienced an improved quality of life in areas including appetite, body weight, nausea, insomnia, depression and anxiety. Twenty patients with Stage 4, end-stage cancer, five of whom were Breast Cancer patients, received 10 grams of ABM teas once a day, among other supplements. After six months, 16 of the patients were alive and their blood analysis showed higher natural killer cell function.
- Favorable results have been recorded to studies about the effects of ABM on various cancers in mouse models, including connective tissue cancers, ovarian and lung cancers , blood cell cancers and liver, stomach and prostate cancers.
While the studies offer very promising results, some are calling for more research to establish a standard treatment. However, there are so many great benefits to ABM mushrooms that I recommend adding them to your daily care.
While the ABM mushroom is edible, delicious, meaty and has a pronounced almond-extract flavor, the best way to connect with its medicinal benefits is through a top notch supplement. In researching to find the best sources, I came across Atlas World, which is American owned and operated.
Atlas World’s Agaricus blazei is produced organically in the United States, by a leading fungal biology company with a history spanning over 70 years. Their production facility is highly controlled and designed to mimic the conditions of Piedade, Brazil, where the mushrooms originated.
The mushrooms grow in rooms that are warm, with high humidity, frequent showers, and cool evenings. Unlike conditions in the wild, the substrate the mushrooms are grown on is of the best quality and is certified organic. After growth, our mushrooms are carefully harvested by hand and then dried gently, to minimize any degradation to compounds contained in the mushroom. All mushrooms and mushroom substrates are subjected to an array of quality assurance tests prior to use, to insure the highest quality product.
If you have any interest in adding these potent mushrooms to your preventive or healing protocol, head to my store to pick up a few bottles. Keeping your immune system alert and strong is key to creating vibrant health and longevity.
Are Mushrooms Plants?
Mushrooms are classified under the Kingdom Fungi, whereas plants are in the Kingdom Plantae. So, how are mushrooms so different from plants? They both grow in the soil and are not animals, but that is the only similarity between the two. The color, way they obtain food and their method of reproduction are very different.
Plants are green because they contain chlorophyll, which helps them with photosynthesis, the process of turning sunlight into food. Mushrooms are not green and they contain no chlorophyll therefore, they cannot photosynthesize. Mushrooms obtain their food by metabolizing dead or decaying organic matter, such as dead plants on the ground. Tiny filaments called hyphae absorb the nutrients from the dead matter. Mushrooms are made up of hyphae filaments and a mass of hyphae is called a mycelium. This is why you often see mushrooms growing on dead tree stumps.
Plants reproduce by making seeds, like the sunflower does. Mushrooms reproduce by producing spores. Thousands of microscopic spores are right underneath the cap, or top part, of the mushroom. They are located in the gills, which are the lines you can see underneath the cap. The stalk part of the mushroom holds all the nutrients needed to produce spores.
About the Author
Rebekah Shaffer is currently a Junior at Slippery Rock University, PA. She is pursuing her B.S. in Biology, minor in Chemistry. She currently works as a microbiology lab assistant at Slippery Rock University and is a member of Beta Beta Beta Biology Honorary Society. She plans to obtain her Ph.D. in Molecular/Cellular Biology after completing her undergraduate degree.