What is the name of this green berry tree?

What is the name of this green berry tree?

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Location: South India

Month: May

Location: Outside, Metropolitan.

Tree with berry fruits (poisonous or not, I don't know):

Its leaves:

Phyllanthus emblica

Phyllanthus emblica, also known as emblic, [2] [4] emblic myrobalan, [2] myrobalan, [4] Indian gooseberry, [2] [4] Malacca tree, [4] or amla [4] from Sanskrit amalaki is a deciduous tree of the family Phyllanthaceae.

  • Cicca emblica(L.) Kurz
  • Diasperus emblica(L.) Kuntze
  • Dichelactina nodicaulisHance
  • Emblica arboreaRaf.
  • Emblica officinalisGaertn.
  • Phyllanthus glomeratusRoxb. ex Wall. nom. inval.
  • Phyllanthus maireiH.Lév.
  • Phyllanthus mimosifoliusSalisb.
  • Phyllanthus taxifoliusD.Don

Phloem, or inner bark, develops from the outside layer of the cambium and is the food track to the roots. Sugars are transported from leaves toward roots in the phloem. When the tree is healthy and growing and sugars are abundant, stored food in the form of starch can be converted back into sugars and moved to where it is needed in the tree.

Xylem is living "sapwood" and located inside the cambial zone. The outer portion of xylem is conducting and storing starch in the symplast plus conducts water and substances dissolved in water to the leaves. The inner portion of the xylem is non-conducting wood that stores starch and is sometimes called heartwood. The major structures for water transport in xylem are vessels in angiosperms (hardwoods) and tracheids in gymnosperms (conifers).

The Natural Range of Hackberry

Andrey Zharkikh / Flickr / CC BY 2.0

Hackberry is widely distributed in the United States and portions of Canada, from southern New England through central New York, west into southern Ontario, and farther west to North and South Dakota. Northern outliers are found in southern Quebec, western Ontario, southern Manitoba, and southeastern Wyoming.

The range extends south from western Nebraska to northeastern Colorado and northwestern Texas, and then east to Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, with scattered occurrences in Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia.

What is the name of this green berry tree? - Biology

2. Pepo: Berry with a hard, thick rind typical fruit of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae). E.g. watermelon, cucumber, squash, cantelope and pumpkin.

3. Hesperidium: Berry with a leathery rind and parchment-like partitions between sections typical fruit of the citrus family (Rutaceae). E.g. orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangelo and kumquat.

4. Drupe: Fleshy fruit with hard inner layer (endocarp or stone) surrounding the seed. E.g. peach, plum, nectarine, apricot, cherry, olive, mango and almond. Some botanists also include the fruits of walnuts, pecans, date palms, macadamia nuts, pistachio nuts, tung oil and kukui nuts as drupes because of their outer, green, fleshy husk and stony, seed-bearing endocarp. These latter fruits are also called drupaceous nuts. The coconut is considered a dry drupe with a green, waterproof outer layer (exocarp), a thick, buoyant, fibrous husk (mesocarp) and a hard, woody, inner layer (endocarp) surrounding the large seed. The actual seed embryo is embedded in the coconut meat (endosperm). Nutrient-rich coconut milk is liquid endosperm that has not formed firm tissue with cell walls. According to Spjut (1994), the fruit of a coconut ( Cocos ) is a "nucleanium." [There is considerable disagreement among authorities about the classification of some of these fruits. For example, the California Macadamia Society considers the macadamia nut to be a follicle. See section B-1 below under dry, dehiscent fruits.]

Note: A number of so-called nuts are probably better placed in the drupe category. This is especially true of the walnut family (Juglandaceae), although some older references still consider these fruits to be nuts. In hickory & pecan ( Carya ) the outer husk or shuck splits into four valves, exposing the hard, indehiscent nut . According to many botanists, the outer husk is part of the pericarp, and the hard, inner layer surrounding the seed is the endocarp therefore, these fruits are technically drupes or drupaceous nuts. Walnut & butternut ( Juglans ), two additional members of the walnut family (Juglandaceae), have similar drupe-like fruits. The outer green husk resembles the outer pericarp (exocarp and mesocarp) of a drupe. For this reason, walnuts are sometimes referred to as dry drupes, and the hard shell surrounding the seed is considered to be the endocarp layer as in coconuts. In true nuts, the hard, indehiscent layer surrounding the seed is the entire ovary wall or pericarp, and the outer husk is composed of involucral tissue that is not part of the ovary wall or pericarp. According to most botanical references, the outer green layer (husk) of the walnut is part of the pericarp and the hard shell surrounding the seed is really the endocarp. Therefore, walnuts and pecans probably fit the dry drupe category rather than a true nut. Some authors elegantly avoid this dilemma by calling these fruits drupe-like or "drupaceous nuts."

According to "The Morphology of the Flowers of the Juglandaceae" by W.E. Manning (1940), American Journal of Botany 27 (10): 839-852, the fruits of Juglans and Carya are drupe-like but not a true drupe or dry drupe. The fruit is sometimes called a " tryma " but can be described as a nut. Webster's Third New International Dictionary describes a tryma as a nutlike drupe (as the fruit of the walnut or hickory) in which the epicarp (exocarp) and mesocarp separate as a somewhat fleshy or leathery rind from the hard 2-valved endocarp. According to Spjut (1994), the walnut ( Juglans ) is a pseudodrupe and the pecan ( Carya ) is a "tryma."

5. Pome: Ovary or core surrounded by edible, fleshy receptacle tissue (hypanthium or fleshy floral tube) that is really not part of the pericarp. The actual ovary or core is usually not eaten, at least by most humans. This is typical fruit of certain members of the rose family (Rosaceae), including apple, pear, quince and loquat.

B. Dry Fruits: Pericarp dry at maturity.

1. Dehiscent Dry Fruits: Pericarp splits open along definite seams.
a. Legume: An elongate "bean pod" splitting along two seams typical fruit of the third largest plant family, the legume family (Leguminosae or Fabaceae). The pod represents one folded modified leaf or carpel that is fused along the edges. E.g. black locust, redbud, acacia, coral tree, orchid tree, wisteria and many more genera. Note: Some legume fruits are indehiscent, including the carob tree, mesquite and honey locust. In addition, some legume fruits are oblong, rounded, kidney-shaped (reniform), or coiled (spiral-shaped), such as sweet clover ( Melilotus alba and M. officinalis ), black medic ( Medicago lupulina ), bur clover ( M. polymorpha ) and alfalfa ( M. sativa ). Some specialized legume fruits (called loments) break apart into indehiscent one-seeded joints. A good example of a loment is the very effective hitchhiker called stick-tights or beggar's-ticks ( Desmodium cuspidatum ).

b. Silique: A slender, dry, dehiscent fruit that superficially resemble a legume, except the mustard silique is composed of two carpels with a partition or septum down the center (i.e. between the two carpels or valves). [The legume fruit is composed of a single carpel and does not have the central partition or septum.] This is the typical fruit of the mustard family (Cruciferae or Brassicaceae). E.g. field mustard, turnip and cabbage ( Brassica species), stock ( Mathiola ), wallflower ( Erysimum ) and London rocket ( Sisymbrium ). The silicle is a shortened (less elongate) version of a silique, including sweet alyssum ( Lobularia ), peppergrass ( Lepidium ) and shepherd's purse ( Capsella ). [Note: As with legumes there are a few exceptions to the typical form of siliques and silicles. In wild radish ( Raphanus ) the silique does not split lengthwise, but instead it breaks transversely into several seed-bearing joints. In lace pod ( Thysanocarpus ) the silicles are indehiscent.]

c. Capsule: Seed pod splits open is various ways and usually along several definite seams. Capsules typically split open into well-defined sections or carpels which represent modified leaves. This is a very common dry fruit found in many different plant families. E.g. Catalpa , Jacaranda , Pittosporum , Aesculus , Agave , Yucca , Eucalyptus , devil's claw ( Proboscidea ), floss silk tree ( Chorisia ), kapok tree ( Ceiba ) and castor bean ( Ricinus communis ). Capsules may split open along the locules (loculicidal), along the septa (septicidal), through pores (poricidal), or the entire top of the capsule separates as a single lid-like section (circumscissile). A common landscaping tree in southern California called the golden-rain tree ( Koelreuteria ) produces bladder-like capsules that are loculicidally dehiscent into three valves. The opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) produces a classic poricidal capsule in which the tiny seeds fall out of the pore-like windows as the capsule shakes in the wind. The edible weed called purslane ( Portulaca ) has a many-seeded circumscissile capsule. The Mexican jumping bean ( Sebastiana pavoniana ) produces a 3-carpellate capsule, each carpel bearing a seed. Sometimes the carpel is occupied by a special moth larva that eats the seed and moves its one-room carpel container by contorting and hurling its body. In the liquidambar tree ( Liquidambar styraciflua ) the globose fruiting heads are composed of numerous tiny capsules, each bearing one or two winged seeds and a number of aborted ovules (immature seeds). It should be noted here that some capsules are indehiscent. Their carpels do not separate and release the seeds. Two examples of plants with indehiscent capsules are the South African baobab tree ( Adansonia digitata ) and two species of South African gardenias ( Gardenia thunbergii and G. volkensii ). The seed pods of South African gardenias are chewed opened by large herbivores, and the seeds are dispersed in their feces. Spjut (1994) classifies the unusual fruit of the devil's claw ( Proboscidea ) as a "ceratium," a capsular fruit that opens by a separation or break in the pericarp layers.

d. Follicle: A single ripened ovary (representing a single modified leaf or carpel) that splits open along one seam. The follicle may occur singly (as in milkweed) or in clusters: two in oleander, 2-5 in peony, 3 in larkspur, 5 in columbine and 4-5 in bottle tree ( Sterculia or Brachychiton ). The cone-like fruit of the magnolia tree is an aggregate of many small follicles, each containing a single bright red seed. The term apocarpous refers to flowers with separate and distinct carpels, such as delphiniums and columbines of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). Although it also belongs to the buttercup family, the fused (syncarpous) carpels of Nigella form a many-seeded capsule.

2. Indehiscent Dry Fruits: Pericarp does not split open. These fruits usually contain only one seed.
a. Achene: Very small, one-seeded fruit, usually produced in clusters. At maturity the pericarp is dry and free from the internal seed, except at the placental attachment. This is the typical fruit of the largest plant family, the sunflower family (Compositae or Asteraceae). Examples of this type of fruit include the sunflower ( Helianthus ), buttercup ( Ranunculus ) and sycamore ( Platanus ). In the sycamore, the globose fruiting heads are composed of tiny, one-seeded achenes interspersed with hairs (some authors refer to these individual fruits as nutlets). [The globose heads of the liquidambar tree are actually composed of numerous tiny capsules.]

b. Anthocarp: In the four o'clock family (Nyctaginaceae), individual apetalous flowers have a tubular, petaloid calyx that resembles a sympetalous corolla. The lower portion of the calyx tightly enwraps the one-seeded achene and is persistent around the fruit as an anthocarp. The calyx base plus the enclosed seed-bearing achene is the unit of dispersal. In some members of the Nyctaginaceae, the persistent calyx base bears sticky glandular projections that aid in dispersal by adhering to the bodies of animals. This is especially true in pisonia trees ( Pisonia umbellifera ) in which the numerous glutinous anthocarps stick to the feathers of seabirds. This is an effective method of dispersal to distant atolls and islands of the South Pacific region. Sometimes a hapless seabird is completely covered by clusters of the sticky anthocarps, to the point where flight is difficult or impossible. Unable to remove the water-resistant, glue-like anthocarps from its feathers, the seabird drowns in the surf and is consumed by ravenous beach crabs.

c. Grain or Caryopsis: A very small, dry, one-seeded, indehiscent fruit in which the actual seed coat is completely fused to the ovary wall or pericarp. The outer pericarp layer or husk is referred to as the bran, while the inner, seed layer is called the germ. This is the characteristic fruit of the large grass family (Gramineae or Poaceae). The grain is truly a fruit (not a seed) because it came from a separate ripened ovary within the grass inflorescence. This is the number one source of food for people on the earth. E.g. Corn (maize), wheat, rice, rye, barley, oats, Johnson grass, Bermuda grass and many more species. In corn grains, the main white material that explodes when the grains are heated is endosperm tissue within the seed. Pressure (water vapor) builds up within the grains until they literally explode.

d. Schizocarp: A small dry fruit composed of two or more sections that break apart however, each section or carpel (also called a mericarp) remains indehiscent and contains a single seed. Because the seed-bearing sections or carpels (called mericarps) do not split open, this type of fruit is usually placed under indehiscent dry fruits. This is the characteristic fruit of the carrot family (Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). E.g. Carrot ( Daucus ), celery ( Apium ) and sweet fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare ). Other examples of schizocarps include filaree or stork's bill ( Erodium ) and cheeseweed ( Malva ), two common weeds in southern California. In these weeds, the seed-bearing carpels (mericarps) separate from each other, but remain indehiscent. Gynoecium is a collective term for the carpels of a flower. Biologists commonly refer to this floral unit as a pistil. Monocarpous flowers are composed of one carpel (a simple pistil). The terms apocarpous and syncarpous refer to compound pistils composed of more than one carpel. Apocarpous flowers contain two or more distinct carpels. In syncarpous flowers, two or more carpels are fused together. In cheeseweed, the carpels are attached to a central, conical connection stalk, but separate from this stalk at maturity. Some authors consider the fruit of the maple ( Acer ) to be a schizocarp because it splits into two indehiscent, seed-bearing carpels however, because of the wing on each seed-bearing carpel, other botanists refer to maple fruits as double samaras (see the samara fruit).

One of the most painful schizocarps is the puncture vine ( Tribulus terrestris ). When dry, the spiny fruit splits into indehiscent, seed-bearing sections (carpels). The spines of each section are arranged so that one is always facing upward, like the medieval weapon called a caltrop. The spiny, seed-bearing burs readily penetrate bare feet, shoes and rubber tires.

e. Samara: Small, winged, one-seeded fruit, usually produced in clusters on trees. E.g. Maple ( Acer ): a double samara, ash ( Fraxinus ), elm ( Ulmus ) and tree of heaven ( Ailanthus ). Samaras resemble the winged seeds of a pine, but they are truly one-seeded fruits with a pericarp layer surrounding the seed. The leguminous tipu tree ( Tipuana tipu ) has a winged fruit that certainly resembles a samara even though it belongs to the legume family (Leguminosae or Fabaceae). Like auto-rotation of helicopters, the samaras spin as they sail through the air, an effective method of dispersal. Richard Spjut (1994) classifies some of the larger winged fruits of Shorea (Diptocarpaceae) and Gyrocarpus (Hernandiaceae) as a "pseudosamara."

f. Nut: Larger, one-seeded fruit with very hard pericarp, usually enclosed in a husk or cup-like involucre. Unfortunately, the above reference by Richard Spjut does not use the term "nut" as a distinct fruit type.

(1) Acorn of oak ( Quercus ): The actual nut sits in a cup-shaped involucre of imbricate (overlapping) scales. Classified as a "glans" by Richard Spjut (1994).

(2) Chestnut ( Castanea ), beech ( Fagus ) & chinquapin ( Castanopsis ): One or more nuts sit in a spiny, cup-shaped involucre. Classified as a "trymosum" by Richard Spjut (1994).

(3) Hazelnut or filbert ( Corylus ): Nut sits in a leafy ( C. americana ) or tubular ( C. cornuta ) involucre. Classified as a "diclesium" by Richard Spjut (1994).

(4) Walnut (Juglans) and pecan ( Carya ) are placed in the drupe category (section A-4) above, although some botanists maintain that they are true nuts. In true nuts, the hard, indehiscent layer surrounding the seed is the entire ovary wall or pericarp. The outer husk of the walnut contains involucral tissue that is not part of the ovary wall (pericarp). According to most botanical references, the outer green layer (husk) of the walnut is part of the pericarp and the hard shell surrounding the seed is really the endocarp. Therefore, walnuts and pecans probably fit the dry drupe category rather than a true nut. Other authorities claim that the walnut husk is composed of involucral tissue, perianth and an outer layer of pericarp, but is not totally derived from the pericarp. However, since the walnut husk contains pericarp tissue (at least in part), and is not entirely derived from involucral (non-pericarp) tissue, Wayne's Word considers the walnut to be drupaceous rather than a true, undisputed nut. Remember that scientific knowledge is constantly being scrutinized and changed, and the exact classification of dubious, borderline fruits such as the walnut are open for review and modification. The walnut is classified as a "pseudodrupe" by Richard Spjut (1994). See discussion about walnuts under drupes (section A-4 above).

Note: Brazil nuts are seeds produced in a large, woody capsule. Cashews are nuts with a hard shell that is removed before shipment to food stores. The cashew "nut" (drupaceous nut) is produced at the summit of a fleshy receptacle called the "cashew apple." Pine nuts are actually gymnosperm seeds produced in a woody, ovuliferous seed cone. The peanut ( Arachis hypogea ) is actually a seed with a papery seed coat, typically two seeds enclosed in a dehiscent pod called a legume. After fertilization, the flower stalk of the peanut curves downward, and the developing fruit (legume) is forced into the ground by the proliferation and elongation of cells under the ovary. The peanut pod subsequently develops underground. For more fruits called "nuts" refer to the above section A-4 about drupes and drupaceous nuts.

g. Utricle: Small, bladderlike, thin-walled, one-seeded, indehiscent fruit. Although it is seldom seen by casual observers, this is the characteristic fruit of the duckweed family (Lemnaceae). The dehiscent one-seeded fruits of Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) are often called circumscissile utricles because the top half of the fruit separates, exposing a shiny black seed.

Note: Wayne's Word contains a lot of additional information about the remarkable duckweed family (Lemnaceae), the undisputed world's smallest flowering plants. Just click on the green Lemnaceae tab for a complete index to articles and photos.

II. Aggregate Fruits: A cluster or aggregation of many ripened ovaries (fruits) produced from a single flower. In blackberries and raspberries ( Rubus ), the individual fruits are tiny, one-seeded drupes or drupelets. Since all the seed-bearing ovaries (carpels) form a fused cluster, the fruit is also called a syncarp. In strawberries ( Fragaria ), the individual fruits are tiny, one-seeded achenes imbedded in a sweet, fleshy receptacle. Another term for an aggregate cluster of ovaries all derived from a single flower is the "etaerio." In fact, a rose hip ( Rosa ) eaten as an entire fruit could be considered an etaerio of achenes enclosed by a fleshy receptacle. Fruits of the genus Annona (Annonaceae), including the sugar apple ( A. squamosa ), cherimoya ( A. cherimola ), custard apple ( A. reticulata ) and soursop ( A. muricata ) resemble large fleshy berries with scales or projections on the outer surface. They are actually composed of many ovaries fused together and are technically aggregate fruits called syncarps. They are not multiple fruits because they develop from a single flower bearing many pistils (carpels).

III. Multiple Fruits: A cluster of many ripened ovaries (fruits) produced by the coalescence of many flowers crowded together in the same inflorescence, typically surrounding a fleshy stem axis. E.g. mulberry, osage orange, pineapple, breadfruit and jackfruit. In the mulberry ( Morus ), the individual fruits are tiny drupes called drupelets. In the pineapple ( Ananas ), the individual fruits are berries imbedded in a fleshy, edible stem, each berry subtended by a jagged-edged bract where the original flower was attached. The fleshy spadix of Monstera deliciosa is also a multiple fruit because it is derived from numerous, tightly-packed female flowers. Another term for multiple fruits composed of a fleshy spike or raceme of tightly packed ovaries is the sorosis .

Note: Fig trees ( Ficus ) produce an edible multiple fruit called a syconium. It is a fleshy, flask-shaped structure (inflorescence) lined on the inside with numerous female flowers, each forming a tiny, one-seeded drupelet. Seed formation requires a symbiotic wasp that enters the syconium and pollinates the female flowers. Smyrna and California-grown Calimyrna figs require wasp pollination. Other fig varieties will produce edible, seedless, parthenocarpic syconia without pollination. This is a very complex and fascinating story that is discussed in several Wayne's Word articles. Look up "fig" under the blue index tab for more information.

Miscellaneous Notes On Fruit Types: Some trees produce seeds and pollen in separate inflorescences called catkins or aments. This includes monoecious species with both male and female catkins on the same tree and dioecious species with separate male and female trees. In birch ( Betula ) and alder ( Alnus ), the seeds (nutlets) are produced in a woody, cone-like catkin. In other trees, such as oak ( Quercus ), only pollen is produced in the catkins.

In true cone-bearing trees, the immature seeds (ovules) are borne at the surface of ovuliferous scales instead of enclosed within an a ovary as in flowering plants. Because the ovules are exposed to the wind-blown pollen during the pollination period, these trees are referred to as gymnosperms (which means naked seeds). The ovuliferous scales collectively form a woody seed cone sealed with sticky resin. At maturity (in one or two years depending on the species), the scales dry and separate from each other, thus releasing the winged seeds. In junipers ( Juniperus ) the scales are fleshy and fused together, and the seed cones superficially resemble berries. In the maidenhair tree ( Ginkgo biloba ), fern pine ( Podocarpus ), and the California nutmeg ( Torreya californica ), the large seed with a fleshy outer coat is borne naked on the branchlets. In the yew tree ( Taxus ) the naked seed is borne in a fleshy, cup-like structure called an aril.

Rowan facts

Global distribution

Rowan can be found in most parts of Europe and North Africa. It also grows in central and northern Asia into northern China. It can survive from sea level up to about 2,000 metres the Alps.

Distribution in Scotland

Rowan grows in most parts of Britain, but is more common in the north and west, and is found throughout Scotland. It grows at a higher altitude than any other tree in the country and occurs at elevations of almost 1,000 metres in parts of the Highlands.

This attribute, together with the similarity of its leaves to those of the ash tree gives rise to its alternative common name of mountain ash. At higher elevations it survives as small saplings which are often stunted in form.

In Scotland today, rowans are often found growing in inaccessible locations. Cliffs, steep stream-sides and on top of large boulders are among the places you can often find this tree. However, these are not the preferred locations for the species. It’s just that these are the only places where it has been able to grow out of reach of herbivores such as red deer and sheep.

Rowan is a fast-growing, short-lived pioneer tree in the rose family. It is a fairly small tree, reaching a maximum height of 10-15 metres, or exceptionally, 20 metres. It is slender in form, although mature trees can be quite substantial. An old rowan at Carnach Mor on the West Affric Estate has a trunk which is over 40 cm. in diameter. Multi-stemmed forms are quite common. This is usually a result of browsing by mammals. The tree sends up new shoots from its base in response to being eaten.

The greyish-brown bark is smooth and shiny when wet, with dark raised dots or lenticels scattered across it. The branches are typically upward-pointing and end in ovoid, purplish buds, which are often covered in grey hairs.

Rowan leaves are compound and pinnate in form. This means that each leaf is made up of matched pairs of leaflets on either side of a stem or rachis, with a terminal leaflet at the end. Leaves are up to 20 cm. in length, and are comprised of 9-15 leaflets, which are serrated with small teeth. Rowan is a deciduous tree, with the new leaves appearing in April. They turn a bright orange-red colour in autumn before being shed.

The flowers blossom after the leaves have appeared, usually in May or early June, and are creamy-white in colour. Individual flowers are about 1 cm. in diameter and they grow in dense clusters or corymbs. Each corymb contains up to 250 flowers, and measures 8-15 cm. across. The strong, sweet scent attracts pollinating insects, including many species of flies, bees and beetles.

The fertilised flowers grow into berries which are 8 mm. in diameter and these ripen to a bright red colour in August or early September. The berries are rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and contain up to 8 small seeds, although 2 seeds per fruit is most common. They are eaten primarily by birds, who disperse the seeds in their droppings.

Seed production begins when the tree is about 15 years old, and in mild climates, rowan will fruit each year. However, in harsher environments such as Glen Affric, fruiting is irregular. Mast seed production, when all the trees produce a heavy crop, occurs every few years, with very little fruiting taking place in between. The tough coat of the rowan seed requires cold weather to break down. Germination usually occurs in the first or second spring after the berries have been produced. Seedlings and saplings are shade-tolerant. They are often found under the branches of large Scots pines where they have grown in the droppings of birds which perched on the branches above.

For similar reasons, rowans also germinate in the forks of the trunks of pines and other trees. But in most cases there isn’t enough organic matter for these seedlings to grow to more than a metre or two in size. Exceptions to this do occur. Near Glac Daraich in Glen Affric there is a good example of a rowan which became established about two metres up an alder. It grew into a mature tree, partly embracing the alder, after its roots reached the soil below.

Rowan is a key part of the Caledonian Forest. It is often found growing alongside Scots pine, sessile oak and other trees.

Like many other tree species, rowan forms special partnerships with fungi. These ‘mycorrhizal’ relationships are a plant and fungal version of ‘you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours’. The fungus attaches to the tree’s roots and gets sugars from the tree. In return the fungus can access nutrients that the tree wouldn’t be able to get otherwise. Rowan partners up with several species of fungus in this way.

Rowan also has a strange and interesting relationship with another kind of fungus. The rust fungus called Gymnosporangium cornutum infects juniper, but in the spore phase of its life cycle it lives on rowan. Here it causes yellow pustules to form on the leaves.

Rowan is a good host tree for lichens, and is the second best in the UK for Graphidion lichens after hazel. A large, leafy lichen called tree lungwort is common on rowan trunks in wet or humid areas.

Mountain hares eat the leaves of young rowan. Rowan leaves are a favourite food of red deer, which also eat the bark and stems. Several mammals eat the berries, and pine martens and foxes are known to be important dispersers of rowan.

The orange-red fruits also provide a feast for many different birds. They’re popular with birds in the thrush family, including fieldfares and redwings. When these birds arrive from the continent in September and October, the berries provide a very welcome source of energy. Blackbirds play a key role in spreading rowan.

A range of invertebrates feed on different parts of rowan. These include the larvae of several species of leaf-mining moths which make mines in rowan leaves. The caterpillars of the Welsh wave moth eat the leaves while the larvae of the apple fruit moth are frequently found in the berries. The flowers are an important nectar source for insects including bees and flies. The larvae of some of these flies play an essential role in rotting down dead wood.

Common Buckthorn

Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) is a small deciduous tree or large shrub that can grow to six meters in height. It has dull green oval or egg shaped leaves and is easily identified by the small thorns at the tip of its branches. It is also known as European buckthorn, European waythorn, and Hart’s thorn. Common buckthorn is considered an invasive species throughout most of the northeastern and central United States and southeastern Canada because of the dense thickets it forms.


Common buckthorn is native to most of Europe (except Iceland and Turkey) and western Asia. It was brought to North America some time in the 1800s for use as an ornamental shrub and wind break but did not have wide spread distribution until the early 1900s. It is found in hedgerows, along roadsides and on ravine slopes.

Common buckthorn summer foliage Berries ripen in August or September

Biology and Identification

Common buckthorn is a perennial shrub or small tree. It is found in lightly shaded areas and is tolerant of many soil types from well-drained sand to clay. Branches are tipped with a short thorn a thorn may also be found in the fork between two branches. The leaves may be opposite or in an alternating pattern (both may be found on the same branch). The leaves are oval or egg shaped with small, serrated teeth. The leaf may be a dull green or a dark green with a lighter green on the under side. Flowers are small with four sepals (a modified leaf that encloses the petals and other parts of the flower) and four petals and they form small clusters from the axils (the space between a leaf or branch and the stem/stalk of the plant) of leaves or on short twigs along the stem. The flowers are a yellowish to green color. Each flower is unisexual with either four stamens or one pistil with a plant being either male or female (dioecious). The fruit or berries are small (5-6 mm in diameter) and are a dark purplish or black color. Each berry will contain four hard seeds. The common buckthorn flowers during late spring (May-June) while leaves are emerging. The berries ripen during August and September and can be found still attached to the plant throughout the winter.

Common buckthorn leaves may be opposite or alternating with both possible on the same branch. Leaves are oval or egg shaped with small, serrated teeth

Buckthorn seeds are easily spread by birds and other wildlife. It is fast growing and will reproduce from seeds or by stump sprouting. The seeds may remain viable in the soil for up to five years.

Common buckthorn can be distinguished from native and other non-native buckthorns by its sharp, thorn-tipped branches and from native Hawthorns (Crataegus spp.) on which the thorns grow from the sides of branches. It also has noticeable forward-curved side veins on its leaves and clusters of purplish-black berries that have 4 hard seeds.


Common buckthorns form thick hedges with long branches that crowd out and shade out native shrub and herbaceous species, preventing regeneration of native plants. In fire prone areas the lack of herbaceous ground cover underneath the buckthorn hedge may prevent fires from spreading.

The common buckthorn is a host for the crown rust fungus (Puccinia coronata), an agricultural pest that inhibits the yield and quality of oats. It may also serve as a overwintering host for the Asian soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura), a pest known to damage soybeans and can spread a variety of horticultural viruses. Buckthorn leaves have a high concentration of nitrogen and the decomposition of leaf litter changes soil nitrogen content and can increase the pH levels in the soil. These changes create better growth conditions for the common buckthorn perpetuating their persistence.

Prevention and Control

There are several methods available for control of common buckthorn. These controls include mowing, excavation, cutting and burning. Repeated mowing and cutting has been shown to reduce the vigor of the plants. The plants may be removed by hand or with heavy equipment depending on the size of the shrubs. Care should be taken to not disturb the roots of other plants. The disturbed area, now devoid of the invasive plant, may become the home for new common buckthorn seedlings or other opportunistic invasive plants. As noted earlier, the seeds may persist in the ground for five years resulting in new growth.

Prescribed burns are another way to control buckthorns in fire-adapted ecosystems. Fires will top-kill mature plants however sprouting can occur from the roots and trunks.

There are also several chemical methods (Table 1) available for controlling common buckthorn. These are generally applied to the stumps after cutting to prevent sprouting. There are no currently known biological controls for common buckthorn. Research into biological controls for common buckthorn is in progress.

Table 1. Herbicides effective on Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)

Chemical Name Use
Triclopyr amine Cut stump
Triclopyr ester Cut stump or basal bark
Glyphosate Cut stump

New York Distribution Map

This map shows confirmed observations (green points) submitted to the NYS Invasive Species Database. Absence of data does not necessarily mean absence of the species at that site, but that it has not been reported there. For more information, please visit iMapInvasives.

Serviceberry Amelanchier canadensis

List of the Most Common Types of Berries

Most common types of edible berries are given in the following list:

Açaí Berries

Açaí berry is a small, round, dark black-purple drupe about 25 mm (1 inch) in diameter, very similar in appearance to grapes. Açaí berries grow on açaí palm trees. These are tall, thin palms that grow up to, or even more than 25m (82 feet), with leaves up to 3 meters (10 feet) long.

Açaí palm is native to Trinidad and northern South America where it grows mainly in swamps and floodplains.


Acerola is a tropical fruit-bearing small tree or a shrub. Common names also include Barbados cherry, West Indian cherry and Wild crepe myrtle.

It is native to South America, southern Mexico, and Central America and it is often grown in warmer areas.

Acerola is extremely rich in vitamin C, but it also contains vitamins A, B1, B2, and B3, as well as carotenoids, bioflavonoids and other antioxidants. Read more.


Aronia is a group of deciduous shrubs, also known as chokeberries, native to eastern North America.

Chokeberries are often mistakenly called chokecherries.

Aronia is commonly found in wet woods and swamps. Berries are consumed fresh, sometimes frozen and often processed as jam, wine, tea etc. Fruits are sour.

Aronia is often named after fruit color: Red chokeberry, Black chokeberry and Purple chokeberry. Read more.


Believe it or not, but banana is a true berry, in the botanical sense. It requires a warmer climate and it is rarely grown in small gardens.

However, 'Dwarf Cavendish' and 'Super Dwarf Cavendish' cultivars can be found in small greenhouses as a decorative trees that actually bear fruits. Read more.


Barberries is large group of wild and semi-wild deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1&ndash5 m (3&ndash16 feet) tall. They are found throughout the temperate and subtropical zones of the world (except Australia).

Barberries are grown for features like ornamental leaves, yellow flowers and red or blue-black edible berries - berries are often very rich in vitamin C, but bitter in taste.

Since they are being very dense, viciously spiny shrubs, they make very effective impenetrable barriers and hedges.


Bayberries is a large group of about 40&ndash50 species of shrubs, small trees and trees (1-20m tall), spread throughout the world, except the Australia. Other common names include Bay-rum tree, Candleberry, Sweet Gale, Wax-myrtle etc.

Bayberries are sold fresh, dried, canned, for juice, for alcoholic beverages and even wax.


Bearberries are three species of dwarf shrubs: Alpine bearberry, Red bearberry and Common bearberry.

The fruit, which is one of the favorite food of bears, are edible and are sometimes gathered for food.

Note: Bearberries appear to be relatively safe for human consumption. However, large doses may cause nausea, vomiting, fever, severe back pain, chills etc. It should be avoided during pregnancy, breast feeding, and by children and/or patients with kidney disease or any similar problems.


Bilberries are very similar in appearance to blueberries and huckleberries.

Bilberries are group of primarily Eurasian species of low-growing shrubs, bearing edible, nearly black berries. The bilberry is native to Europe, while the blueberry is native to North America. Bilberries produce single or paired berries on the bush instead of clusters like blueberries. Also, blueberries have more evergreen leaves.

Bilberries are very hard to grow and have small fruits and are thus seldom cultivated in home gardens. However, they are collected in the wild, where they grow in large numbers and cover large area (for example,

20% of land area of Sweden is covered with bilberries).


Blackberries are common type of false berries. They grow in the wild and in many home gardens. These berries have small dark, almost black, very aromatic fruit.

Thornless varieties have somewhat milder aroma and taste, but they are much easier to pick. Very often, wild blackberries are rerooted in home gardens. Read more.

Black cherries

Black cherries are also known as wild black cherry, rum cherry and mountain black cherry. They are native to North America.

Black cherries are similar to chokecherries, especially to very ripe chokecherries.

It is moderately long lived tree, with individual trees being 250+ years old. Black cherries begin with fruit production around of age of 10, having its maximum between ages of 30 and 100 years. Hence, it is rarely found in home and small gardens.


Blackcurrant is a medium-sized shrub/small tree, growing 1.5 m (5 feet) tall on damp fertile soils, bearing small, glossy, very aromatic black fruits. Fruits are consumed fresh or processed.

Blackcurrant is one of the most popular berries in home and small gardens. pH of the soil should be around 6 and if that is hard to meet, growing them in large containers is also possible. Read more.


Blueberries are very similar in appearance to bilberries and huckleberries. Blueberries are shrubs that vary in size from 10 cm (4 inches) to 4 m (13 ft) in height. Very often, the smaller species are known as 'low-bush blueberries', while the larger species are known as 'high-bush blueberries'.

Blueberries like any acidic soil with pH between 4 and 5.2, but they will grow anywhere between pH 3.5 and 6.5. Read more.


Boysenberries are a cross between a European raspberry, a common blackberry, an American dewberry and a loganberry.

It has a large (up to, or even more than 8g - 0.28 oz) aggregate fruits, with large seeds and a deep maroon color. Read more.

Chehalem berries

Chehalem berries or Chehalem blackberries are a cross between the Himalayan blackberry, the California blackberry and the loganberry.

The Chehalem blackberry is smaller than the loganberry. It has bright skin, a shiny black color and small seeds with the strong flavor. It is consumed fresh, frozen and processed.


Chokecherries are very similar to chokeberries, sharing many properties.

Chokecherry is also commonly called bitter-berry, Virginia bird cherry, western chokecherry and black chokecherry. It is native to North America.

Chokecherries grow as a shrub or small tree - up to 5 m (16 feet) tall. The fruits are about 1 cm in diameter and they range in color from bright red to black. Taste is very astringent, both sour and bitter.

The very ripe berries are darker in color, less astringent and sweeter than the red berries.

Citrus Fruits

The citrus fruits like orange, lemon, tangerine etc. are berries with a thick rind and soft, edible interior.

They prefer warmer climate, however, when protected from cold winds and freezing temperatures, they can grow even in colder areas. Worst case scenario - grow them in containers and when required, place them in protected area. This way, certain lemon varieties can flower and bear fruits yearlong even in colder regions.


Cloudberries are small amber berries that ripen in autumn. They grow 10 to 25 cm high, they prefer cold climate, sunny positions, acidic soil (pH between 3.5 and 5) with plenty of moisture in the soil.


Cranberries are low, creeping shrubs up to 2 meters long and 5 to 20 centimeters in height. Edible berries are initially white, turning dark red when fully ripe.

They are consumed fresh, dried and processed in juice, jams and similar.

Raw cranberries are a source of various phytochemicals, which are under active research for possible effects on the cardiovascular system, immune system and cancer. Read more.


Crowberries or black crowberries are grown in acidic soils in shady, moist areas. It tolerates low temperatures yielding steady crops.

Can be consumed fresh or processed. It is sometimes grown as ornamental plant in gardens.


Dewberries are similar in appearance and closely related to blackberries.

Dewberries have separate male and female plants.

They are small trailing plants, growing new roots along the length of the stem. Fruits are edible fresh, but also processed in different ways.

Elderberries (Sambucus)

Elderberries are group of shrubs and small trees often found in temperate to subtropical regions of the world.

Elderberry flowers are used for making tea, syrup and other beverages, but can be consumed in salads, fried etc. Ripe black elderberries are edible, but often consumed processed in jams, syrups, pies etc. Red elderberries should be consumed processed only. Read more.

Himalayan or Armenian Blackberry

Armenian or Himalayan Blackberry is very similar to common blackberry (but larger and sweeter) and similar plants.

Edible fruits are dark blue or black when fully ripe. It is easily spread around by birds and other animals - very invasive species.

It is easily grown in home and small gardens.

Goji Berries or Wolfberries

Goji Berries or Wolfberries are fruits of the two, very similar species. Both are shrubs/small trees that grow 1-3m tall.

In traditional medicine, the whole goji berry fruit or its extracts have numerous implied health effects, but these statements remain scientifically unconfirmed. However, goji berries are often considered as superfruit.

Personally, I don't believe everything (anything?!) that is marketed around as being 'super'.

If you have free space in your home garden, give them a try - they are decorative plants that yield fruits that is edible fresh and can be processed in numerous ways. Read more.


Gooseberries grow as small trees and shrubs (1.5m in height and width) and are available as green, red, purpe, yellow, or even white gooseberries.

Gooseberries are easy to grow in small gardens - if you happen to find great tasting gooseberry in nature, be sure to cut a small branch. When home, put cutting in a suitable pot with good wet soil and soon it will grow new roots and new fruits can be expected in year or two. Read more.


Grapes are one of 'true' berries. It is easily grown in small gardens for tasty fruits and often for - shade!

Fruits are consumed fresh or processed in juices, wine etc.

Grapes come in numerous varieties suitable for many terrains, soils and climates.


Hackberries is a group of 60-70 trees (Celtis genus) spread around the world in warm temperate regions.

Celtis trees can grow up to 25m tall, sometimes even more. Fruits are small, 5-10mm in diameter, varying in color from species to species and edible in most species.

Trees are easy to grow and are often grown in parks in towns and cities. In home and small gardens Celtis provide shade during summer and fallen leaves are great for making compost.


Huckleberry is name for several plants bearing small red, purple, blue or even black berries. In appearance, blue huckleberries are very similar to blueberries, often sharing taste and fragrance, too. However, many varieties of huckleberries have taste that differ from blueberries and some even have much larger seeds.

Huckleberries are consumed fresh, but they are also often processed into jams, syrups, salad dressings etc. They were often used in traditional medicine, too.

Indian Plum - Osoberry

Indian plum or Osoberry is a shrub 1.5 - 4.5m tall with small, 1.3cm (half inch) long fruits, dark blue when ripe, resembling small plums.

The osoberries are dioecious plants - male and female flowers occur on different plants, so when planning them in the garden, make room for more plants, unless there are male plants near by.


Jostaberries are cross between the black currant, the North American coastal black gooseberry and the European gooseberry.

Almost black berries are smaller than a gooseberry and a bit larger than a blackcurrant. Fruits are edible and often cooked. Like blackcurrants, jostaberry fruits freeze well.

When growing in small gardens, keep in mind that the ripe fruits can be kept on the bush in good condition through entire late summer. However, birds like jostaberries and fruits must be protected by nets. Read more.

Juniper Berries

Juniper berries are group of 50-60 plants, spread in Northern Hemisphere. Note that all juniper plants grow berry like fruits - some are too bitter to eat and some are mildly toxic and NOT recommended for human consumption.

Junipers vary greatly in plant and fruit size - most fruits are around 1 - 1.3 cm (half inch) in diameter, but there are also much larger fruits (2.5cm, one inch).

Mostly, they are very resilient plants, requiring very little care.


Kotata berries, kotata blackberries or kotataberries are cross between various blackberry species and red raspberry. It is very similar to Marionberry, but it is more tolerant to cold and fruits are little bit sturdier.

Kotata berries are deep black, medium in size.

Plants are easily grown - one of the blackberries recommended for home and small gardens.

Lingonberries and Cowberries

Main difference between lingonberries and cowberries is that lingonberries grow in North America and the leaves are 5&ndash18 mm (0.2&ndash0.7 in) long, while cowberries grow Eurasia and the leaves are 10&ndash30 mm (0.4&ndash1.2 in) long.

Lingonberries and cowberries are very similar to bearberries and are even called bearberries, beaverberry, foxberry, mountain bilberry etc.

Lingonberries and cowberries are very resilient plants, growing by spreading underground stems and forming dense colonies, often covering very large areas.


Modern loganberries are derived from a cross between 'Aughinbaugh' blackberry (female parent) and 'Red Antwerp' raspberry (male parent).

Berries of varying maturity grow on a single, thorny plant, extending the crop season - great for small and home gardens. Plants are sturdy, very resistant to frost and various diseases.

Well treated loganberry plant can produce 6-8kg of berries over period of two months. After harvest, two year old canes should be cut off.


Marionberries or Marion Blackberries are cross between Chehalem and Olallie blackberries.

Marionberries plants produce only few canes, but those are up to 6m long, with spiny vines and long and strong laterals with numerous berries. Berries are black, medium in size, with strong and complex flavor.

Marionberries are consumed fresh, frozen, in pies, jams, ice creams etc.


Mulberries is a group of 10-15 species that grow as a tree in wild and in many small and home gardens.

The mulberry fruit is 2&ndash5 cm long. Generally, there are white, red and black mulberries with darker varieties having stronger and more aromatic fruits.

Mulberries are consumed fresh, right from the tree, but also processed in numerous ways.


Nannyberry is also known as Sheepberry or Sweet Viburnum (lat. Viburnum lentago). It is a shrub or often a small tree, sometimes up to a 10m tall.

Nannyberries are small and round, blue-black in color when fully ripe. The fruits have relatively thick skin, they are refreshingly sweet-sour and juicy.


Olallieberries are cross between the loganberry (a cross between blackberry and raspberry) and the youngberry (a cross between blackberry and dewberry).

Commercially, it is mostly grown in California. In small and home gardens, olallieberries are grown like many other blackberry based berries. They are consumed fresh, frozen or processed.

Oregon Grapes

Oregon grapes are small evergreen shrubs growing 1.5m tall and wide. They are very decorative plants with dense clusters of yellow flowers in spring, followed by dark blue berries later.

They are used for landscaping since Oregon grapes shrub is resistant to summer drought and tolerates poor soils.

Fruits are edible fresh and sometimes processed in jellies and jams.


Pineberries are, simply put - strawberries :)

Although pineberries have flavor that resemblance pineapples and are white in color, they are produced from different strawberry cultivars that growers selected for appearance, taste and fragrance. Therefore, pineberries are strawberries.

Pineberries are disease resistant, have relatively smaller fruits and lower crop yield. However, for home and small gardens, it is one of the 'must have' berries :)

Pink Currant

Pink currants are very similar to white currants and are grown as decorative plants and for edible, very tasty fruits.

Like other currants, pink currants are consumed fresh and processed in jams, juices, jellies etc. Read more.


Pomegranate is a berry, 5&ndash15 cm (2-6 inches) in diameter, rounded in shape, with thick, red-brownish skin. The number of seeds can vary from 200 to about 1400 seeds.

Plant is very ornamental, especially when flowering and some people grow them for their flowers and fruits are just a 'byproduct', loaded with vitamin C and other vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.

Pomegranate is low maintenance plant which often grows in the wild better than in some gardens. Read more.


Raspberries are small, red false berries that ripen during summer and autumn. They come in large number of varieties and are common berry found in many small gardens. Read more.


Redcurrant or red currant is shrub 1.5 to 2m tall producing 3&ndash4 kg of berries from mid to late summer per shrub.

Redcurrant fruits are bright red, about 8&ndash12 mm in diameter, with 4&ndash10 berries on each raceme.

Redcurrant shrubs are relatively low-maintenance plants - they prefer positions of partial to full sun and can grow in most types of garden soil. Read more.

Rose Hips

Rose hips are the fruits of the rose plant. Rose hips are typically orange-red in color, can be consumed fresh, but are more often processed into various jams, jellies and similar.

Any larger quantities of rose hips are collected in rose gardens and from wild roses. Read more.


Salmonberry is plant that grows as a 1-4m tall shrub. Salmonberry fruits are 1.5&ndash2 cm long, with many drupelets which resemble a large yellow to red-orange raspberries.

Salmonberries are edible, but many people consider them to lack behind raspberries and similar berries in taste and aroma. These, however, depend on location and growing conditions.

Salmonberries are consumed fresh and processed in various jellies, jams and similar.

Salmonberries are low maintenance plants and require almost no care.

Sea-Buckthorn Berries

The sea-buckthorns are group of plants, deciduous shrubs 0.7 to 5m tall, found over a wide area of Europe and Asia.

They are tolerant of salt in the air and soil, but require full sunlight. The sea-buckthorns typically grow in dry, sandy areas.

Common sea-buckthorn is often grown as an decorative plant in parks and gardens. Fruits are usually processed into tea, juice or syrup.


Strawberries are one of the most popular fruits in general. It is grown in small and home gardens, indoors, in greenhouses, commercially on large areas etc.

Strawberry is not a botanical berry, but an aggregate accessory fruit, but actually, who cares :)

They are available in the form of many types and varieties, that often require very little care, except regular watering, pruning, picking and checking against diseases and pests, especially birds. Read more.


Tayberries are a cross between a blackberry and a red raspberry, with sweeter, larger and more aromatic fruits when compared with the loganberry (also a cross between a blackberry and a red raspberry).

Fruits are consumed raw and processed.

Tayberries are popular type of berries for small and home gardens - easy to grow and fruits hold firmly on the shrubs.


Thimbleberry is a plant that grows as dense shrub up to 2.5 meters tall. It is native to western and northern North America and the Great Lakes region. Thimbleberries are not a true berries, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets.

Fruits are consumed fresh and consumed. Birds like to eat thimbleberries, so protection of some sort is required.

Plant is very decorative and it is often grown as such.


Tomatoes are true berries (a simple fruit having seeds and pulp produced from a single ovary).

Tomatoes are available in huge number of varieties that vary in size, color, vegetation period etc.

They are commonly grown in small and home gardens and consumed fresh, in various dishes or processed as catchup and similar. Read more.


Like tomatoes, watermelons are true berries, too.

They can be easily grown in home and small gardens, but they require space, good and moist soil and often protection from various diseases and pests.

However, who doesn't like a slice of cold watermelon during summer heat . Read more.

White currant

White currant (or whitecurrant) is an albino cultivar of the red currant and its berries are sweeter than red currant berries.

Like other currants, white currants are low maintenance plants and their fruits are consumed fresh and processed.

In small gardens, many people simply mix currants in a single row of plants - blackcurrants, red currants, pink currants, white currants and yellow currants. Read more.

Yellow Currants

Yellow currants are very similar to white and pink currants and are grown as decorative plants and for edible, very tasty fruits. They are somewhat smaller and sweeter than red currants.

Like other currants, yellow currants are consumed fresh and processed in jams, juices, jellies etc. Read more.

Obviously, there are many plants considered as 'berries' that can find place in any home or small garden, regardless of position, climate, soil and terrain.

Since many berries grow for years, even decades, before planting them, careful planing is required. Or plant them in large pots and relocate as needed or desired.

This is a big category, so let's break it down into two main groups:

Trees with needles or scale-like leaves. Cedar and juniper trees have scale-like leaves that look more like flattened out fans than either leaves or needles. Cedar trees have green scales and small cones. Junipers, on the other hand, have bluish, berry-like cones.

Trees with leaves. To make things simpler, we are once again going to break this category into two groups.

Major species

Common juniper (Juniperus communis), a sprawling shrub, is widely distributed on rocky soils throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Many ornamental cultivars have been developed.

Another important ornamental and timber tree is the eastern red cedar (J. virginiana) of eastern North America. This species is an invader of glades, pastures, prairies, and other open grassy areas in parts of its range thus, it is considered a troublesome weed by some botanists and land managers.

The savin (J. sabina) of central Europe, Chinese juniper (J. chinensis) of eastern Asia, and creeping juniper (J. horizontalis) of eastern North America are other popular ornamental species with many horticultural varieties.

The wood of incense, or Spanish, juniper (J. thurifera), of Spain and Portugal, and of Phoenician juniper (J. phoenicea) of the Mediterranean region sometimes is burned as incense.

The berrylike cones of common juniper are used to flavour foods and alcoholic beverages—particularly gin, which is named after Juniperus through the French genièvre. Juniper “berries” have a fragrant spicy aroma and a slightly bittersweet flavour. Used with venison, they remove the gamey taste. They are also used to season sauces and stuffings, in pickling meats, and to flavour liqueurs and bitters.

Oil of juniper, distilled from the wood and leaves of several species, is used in perfumes and in medicines such as diuretics.

The fragrant wood of some species is made into cabinets, fence posts, and pencils. Eastern red cedar is especially common for the lining of linen closets and for cedar chests, as it repels moths and other pests.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor.

Watch the video: Green Berry Tree by Lolly Hopwood and Rosie Posie (July 2022).


  1. Hamlett

    Quite right! I think this is a good idea. I agree with you.

  2. Alexandre

    yeah !!!! no words

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