11.3: Bones of the Upper Limb - Biology

11.3: Bones of the Upper Limb - Biology

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Learning Objectives

  • Identify the divisions of the upper limb and describe the bones in each region
  • List the bones and bony landmarks that articulate at each joint of the upper limb

The upper limb is divided into three regions. These consist of the arm, located between the shoulder and elbow joints; the forearm, which is between the elbow and wrist joints; and the hand, which is located distal to the wrist. There are 30 bones in each upper limb. The humerus is the single bone of the upper arm, and the ulna (medially) and the radius (laterally) are the paired bones of the forearm. The base of the hand contains eight bones, each called a carpal bone, and the palm of the hand is formed by five bones, each called a metacarpal bone. The fingers and thumb contain a total of 14 bones, each of which is a phalanx bone of the hand.


The humerus is the single bone of the upper arm region (Figure 1). At its proximal end is the head of the humerus. This is the large, round, smooth region that faces medially. The head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint. The margin of the smooth area of the head is the anatomical neck of the humerus. Located on the lateral side of the proximal humerus is an expanded bony area called the greater tubercle. The smaller lesser tubercle of the humerus is found on the anterior aspect of the humerus. Both the greater and lesser tubercles serve as attachment sites for muscles that act across the shoulder joint. Passing between the greater and lesser tubercles is the narrow intertubercular groove (sulcus), which is also known as the bicipital groove because it provides passage for a tendon of the biceps brachii muscle. The surgical neck is located at the base of the expanded, proximal end of the humerus, where it joins the narrow shaft of the humerus. The surgical neck is a common site of arm fractures. The deltoid tuberosity is a roughened, V-shaped region located on the lateral side in the middle of the humerus shaft. As its name indicates, it is the site of attachment for the deltoid muscle.

Distally, the humerus becomes flattened. The prominent bony projection on the medial side is the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The much smaller lateral epicondyle of the humerus is found on the lateral side of the distal humerus. The roughened ridge of bone above the lateral epicondyle is the lateral supracondylar ridge. All of these areas are attachment points for muscles that act on the forearm, wrist, and hand. The powerful grasping muscles of the anterior forearm arise from the medial epicondyle, which is thus larger and more robust than the lateral epicondyle that gives rise to the weaker posterior forearm muscles.

The distal end of the humerus has two articulation areas, which join the ulna and radius bones of the forearm to form the elbow joint. The more medial of these areas is the trochlea, a spindle- or pulley-shaped region (trochlea = “pulley”), which articulates with the ulna bone. Immediately lateral to the trochlea is the capitulum (“small head”), a knob-like structure located on the anterior surface of the distal humerus. The capitulum articulates with the radius bone of the forearm. Just above these bony areas are two small depressions. These spaces accommodate the forearm bones when the elbow is fully bent (flexed). Superior to the trochlea is the coronoid fossa, which receives the coronoid process of the ulna, and above the capitulum is the radial fossa, which receives the head of the radius when the elbow is flexed. Similarly, the posterior humerus has the olecranon fossa, a larger depression that receives the olecranon process of the ulna when the forearm is fully extended.


The ulna is the medial bone of the forearm. It runs parallel to the radius, which is the lateral bone of the forearm (Figure 2). The proximal end of the ulna resembles a crescent wrench with its large, C-shaped trochlear notch. This region articulates with the trochlea of the humerus as part of the elbow joint. The inferior margin of the trochlear notch is formed by a prominent lip of bone called the coronoid process of the ulna. Just below this on the anterior ulna is a roughened area called the ulnar tuberosity. To the lateral side and slightly inferior to the trochlear notch is a small, smooth area called the radial notch of the ulna. This area is the site of articulation between the proximal radius and the ulna, forming the proximal radioulnar joint. The posterior and superior portions of the proximal ulna make up the olecranon process, which forms the bony tip of the elbow.

More distal is the shaft of the ulna. The lateral side of the shaft forms a ridge called the interosseous border of the ulna. This is the line of attachment for the interosseous membrane of the forearm, a sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the ulna and radius bones. The small, rounded area that forms the distal end is the head of the ulna. Projecting from the posterior side of the ulnar head is the styloid process of the ulna, a short bony projection. This serves as an attachment point for a connective tissue structure that unites the distal ends of the ulna and radius.

In the anatomical position, with the elbow fully extended and the palms facing forward, the arm and forearm do not form a straight line. Instead, the forearm deviates laterally by 5–15 degrees from the line of the arm. This deviation is called the carrying angle. It allows the forearm and hand to swing freely or to carry an object without hitting the hip. The carrying angle is larger in females to accommodate their wider pelvis.


The radius runs parallel to the ulna, on the lateral (thumb) side of the forearm (see Figure 2). The head of the radius is a disc-shaped structure that forms the proximal end. The small depression on the surface of the head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus as part of the elbow joint, whereas the smooth, outer margin of the head articulates with the radial notch of the ulna at the proximal radioulnar joint.

The neck of the radius is the narrowed region immediately below the expanded head. Inferior to this point on the medial side is the radial tuberosity, an oval-shaped, bony protuberance that serves as a muscle attachment point.

The shaft of the radius is slightly curved and has a small ridge along its medial side. This ridge forms the interosseous border of the radius, which, like the similar border of the ulna, is the line of attachment for the interosseous membrane that unites the two forearm bones.

The distal end of the radius has a smooth surface for articulation with two carpal bones to form the radiocarpal joint or wrist joint (Figure 3 and Figure 4). On the medial side of the distal radius is the ulnar notch of the radius. This shallow depression articulates with the head of the ulna, which together form the distal radioulnar joint. The lateral end of the radius has a pointed projection called the styloid process of the radius. This provides attachment for ligaments that support the lateral side of the wrist joint. Compared to the styloid process of the ulna, the styloid process of the radius projects more distally, thereby limiting the range of movement for lateral deviations of the hand at the wrist joint.

Watch this video to see how fractures of the distal radius bone can affect the wrist joint. Explain the problems that may occur if a fracture of the distal radius involves the joint surface of the radiocarpal joint of the wrist.

Carpal Bones

The wrist and base of the hand are formed by a series of eight small carpal bones (see Figure 3). The carpal bones are arranged in two rows, forming a proximal row of four carpal bones and a distal row of four carpal bones. The bones in the proximal row, running from the lateral (thumb) side to the medial side, are the scaphoid (“boat-shaped”), lunate (“moon-shaped”), triquetrum (“three-cornered”), and pisiform (“pea-shaped”) bones. The small, rounded pisiform bone articulates with the anterior surface of the triquetrum bone. The pisiform thus projects anteriorly, where it forms the bony bump that can be felt at the medial base of your hand. The distal bones (lateral to medial) are the trapezium (“table”), trapezoid (“resembles a table”), capitate (“head-shaped”), and hamate (“hooked bone”) bones. The hamate bone is characterized by a prominent bony extension on its anterior side called the hook of the hamate bone.

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the arrangement of the carpal bones is “So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb.” This mnemonic starts on the lateral side and names the proximal bones from lateral to medial (scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform), then makes a U-turn to name the distal bones from medial to lateral (hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium). Thus, it starts and finishes on the lateral side.

The carpal bones form the base of the hand. This can be seen in the radiograph (X-ray image) of the hand that shows the relationships of the hand bones to the skin creases of the hand (see Figure 4). Within the carpal bones, the four proximal bones are united to each other by ligaments to form a unit. Only three of these bones, the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum, contribute to the radiocarpal joint. The scaphoid and lunate bones articulate directly with the distal end of the radius, whereas the triquetrum bone articulates with a fibrocartilaginous pad that spans the radius and styloid process of the ulna. The distal end of the ulna thus does not directly articulate with any of the carpal bones.

The four distal carpal bones are also held together as a group by ligaments. The proximal and distal rows of carpal bones articulate with each other to form the midcarpal joint (see Figure 4). Together, the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints are responsible for all movements of the hand at the wrist. The distal carpal bones also articulate with the metacarpal bones of the hand.

In the articulated hand, the carpal bones form a U-shaped grouping. A strong ligament called the flexor retinaculum spans the top of this U-shaped area to maintain this grouping of the carpal bones. The flexor retinaculum is attached laterally to the trapezium and scaphoid bones, and medially to the hamate and pisiform bones. Together, the carpal bones and the flexor retinaculum form a passageway called the carpal tunnel, with the carpal bones forming the walls and floor, and the flexor retinaculum forming the roof of this space (Figure 5).

The tendons of nine muscles of the anterior forearm and an important nerve pass through this narrow tunnel to enter the hand. Overuse of the muscle tendons or wrist injury can produce inflammation and swelling within this space. This produces compression of the nerve, resulting in carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by pain or numbness, and muscle weakness in those areas of the hand supplied by this nerve.

Metacarpal Bones

The palm of the hand contains five elongated metacarpal bones. These bones lie between the carpal bones of the wrist and the bones of the fingers and thumb (see Figure 3). The proximal end of each metacarpal bone articulates with one of the distal carpal bones. Each of these articulations is a carpometacarpal joint (see Figure 4). The expanded distal end of each metacarpal bone articulates at the metacarpophalangeal joint with the proximal phalanx bone of the thumb or one of the fingers. The distal end also forms the knuckles of the hand, at the base of the fingers. The metacarpal bones are numbered 1–5, beginning at the thumb.

The first metacarpal bone, at the base of the thumb, is separated from the other metacarpal bones. This allows it a freedom of motion that is independent of the other metacarpal bones, which is very important for thumb mobility. The remaining metacarpal bones are united together to form the palm of the hand. The second and third metacarpal bones are firmly anchored in place and are immobile. However, the fourth and fifth metacarpal bones have limited anterior-posterior mobility, a motion that is greater for the fifth bone. This mobility is important during power gripping with the hand (Figure 6). The anterior movement of these bones, particularly the fifth metacarpal bone, increases the strength of contact for the medial hand during gripping actions.

Phalanx Bones

The fingers and thumb contain 14 bones, each of which is called a phalanx bone (plural = phalanges), named after the ancient Greek phalanx (a rectangular block of soldiers). The thumb (pollex) is digit number 1 and has two phalanges, a proximal phalanx, and a distal phalanx bone (see Figure 3). Digits 2 (index finger) through 5 (little finger) have three phalanges each, called the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx bones. An interphalangeal joint is one of the articulations between adjacent phalanges of the digits (see Figure 4).

Visit this site to explore the bones and joints of the hand. What are the three arches of the hand, and what is the importance of these during the gripping of an object?

Try It

Due to our constant use of the hands and the rest of our upper limbs, an injury to any of these areas will cause a significant loss of functional ability. Many fractures result from a hard fall onto an outstretched hand. The resulting transmission of force up the limb may result in a fracture of the humerus, radius, or scaphoid bones. These injuries are especially common in elderly people whose bones are weakened due to osteoporosis.

Falls onto the hand or elbow, or direct blows to the arm, can result in fractures of the humerus (Figure 7). Following a fall, fractures at the surgical neck, the region at which the expanded proximal end of the humerus joins with the shaft, can result in an impacted fracture, in which the distal portion of the humerus is driven into the proximal portion. Falls or blows to the arm can also produce transverse or spiral fractures of the humeral shaft.

In children, a fall onto the tip of the elbow frequently results in a distal humerus fracture. In these, the olecranon of the ulna is driven upward, resulting in a fracture across the distal humerus, above both epicondyles (supracondylar fracture), or a fracture between the epicondyles, thus separating one or both of the epicondyles from the body of the humerus (intercondylar fracture). With these injuries, the immediate concern is possible compression of the artery to the forearm due to swelling of the surrounding tissues. If compression occurs, the resulting ischemia (lack of oxygen) due to reduced blood flow can quickly produce irreparable damage to the forearm muscles. In addition, four major nerves for shoulder and upper limb muscles are closely associated with different regions of the humerus, and thus, humeral fractures may also damage these nerves.

Another frequent injury following a fall onto an outstretched hand is a Colles fracture (“col-lees”) of the distal radius (see Figure 7). This involves a complete transverse fracture across the distal radius that drives the separated distal fragment of the radius posteriorly and superiorly. This injury results in a characteristic “dinner fork” bend of the forearm just above the wrist due to the posterior displacement of the hand. This is the most frequent forearm fracture and is a common injury in persons over the age of 50, particularly in older women with osteoporosis. It also commonly occurs following a high-speed fall onto the hand during activities such as snowboarding or skating.

The most commonly fractured carpal bone is the scaphoid, often resulting from a fall onto the hand. Deep pain at the lateral wrist may yield an initial diagnosis of a wrist sprain, but a radiograph taken several weeks after the injury, after tissue swelling has subsided, will reveal the fracture. Due to the poor blood supply to the scaphoid bone, healing will be slow and there is the danger of bone necrosis and subsequent degenerative joint disease of the wrist.

Watch this video to learn about a Colles fracture, a break of the distal radius, usually caused by falling onto an outstretched hand. When would surgery be required and how would the fracture be repaired in this case?

A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:


This article aims to provide hand surgeons with current knowledge on the developmental biology of the upper limb. It will review positioning, limb bud emergence and formation of the apical ectodermal ridge. The development of the limb bud is analyzed in its three axes: proximal-distal, anteroposterior and dorsoventral. The signaling center and primary morphogens that initiate and stimulate the development of each axis will be described. For the proximal-distal axis, the apical ectodermal ridge stimulates the production of FGFs in the underlying distal mesoderm. The anteroposterior (or radio-ulnar) differentiation is a function of the zone of polarizing activity via the small Sonic hedgehog protein, which diffuses in a decreasing concentration gradient from the ulnar to the radial side of the bud. This gradient is essential to digit identity and numbers. For the dorsoventral differentiation, the signaling center is the dorsal ectoderm, which secretes WNT7A. Limb segmentation is described in three parts (arm, forearm and hand) along with the formation of the digital rays until finger separation. An example of congenital anomalies is provided for each step. To keep the length of this lecture within reason, the embryogenesis of nerves, blood vessels, muscles and tendons will not be discussed. On the other hand, the singularity of the thumb relative to the other fingers will be described. With a better understanding of developmental biology, surgeons should have better insight into congenital anomalies of the upper limb. This approach is the basis for the new OMT classification used by the IFFSH.

The Pectoral Girdle

The pectoral girdle bones provide the points of attachment of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton. The human pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle (or collarbone) in the anterior, and the scapula (or shoulder blades) in the posterior.

The clavicles are S-shaped bones that position the arms on the body. The clavicles lie horizontally across the front of the thorax (chest) just above the first rib. These bones are fairly fragile and are susceptible to fractures. For example, a fall with the arms outstretched causes the force to be transmitted to the clavicles, which can break if the force is excessive. The clavicle articulates with the sternum and the scapula.

The scapulae are flat, triangular bones that are located at the back of the pectoral girdle. They support the muscles crossing the shoulder joint. A ridge, called the spine, runs across the back of the scapula and can easily be felt through the skin (Figure 2). The spine of the scapula is a good example of a bony protrusion that facilitates a broad area of attachment for muscles to bone.

Figure 2: (a) The pectoral girdle in primates consists of the clavicles and scapulae. (b) The posterior view reveals the spine of the scapula to which muscle attaches.

Blood Supply and Lymphatics

The arterial supply of the upper extremity starts with the subclavian artery. The subclavian has a complicated course through the axilla, changing names twice before it gets to the upper arm. As it passes the one rib, it becomes the axillary artery. In the axilla, it passes deep to the pectoralis minor muscle toward the humerus. It gives off the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries, before coursing posteriorly around the humeral head, giving rise to its largest branch, the subscapular artery. As it passes the teres minor, it becomes the brachial artery. At this point, it gives off the profundal brachii, which supplies the deep structures of the arm. It then travels along the humerus in the radial groove, along with the radial nerve. As it passes into the elbow, near the median nerve, it courses deep to the brachialis and splits into 2 branches, the radial (lateral branch) and ulnar (medial branch). The radial artery courses down the arm and supplies the deep palmar arch, while the ulnar artery supplies the superficial palmar arch. Due to its many anastomosing arteries, there are not many clinical correlates to the arterial injury of the upper extremity.

The venous drainage of the upper extremity is accomplished via two large veins. The first, the basilic vein, is formed by the radial and ulnar veins. It courses along the medial side of the arm where it meets with the brachial veins, forming the axillary vein. The cephalic vein arises around the hand and transverses the anterior-lateral area of the upper limb. It eventually courses between the pectoral and deltoid muscles, dumping into the axillary vein. The median cubital vein is a vein that is commonly used as a venipuncture site. It is a branch connecting the cephalic and basilic vein.

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10 Cards in this Set

Name the bones of the pectoral girdle

Name the bones of each region of the upper limb

1. Pectoral Girdle: 1 Scapula & 1 Clavicle

2. Arm (Brachial Region): 1 Humerus

3. Forearm (Antebrachial): 1 Radius & 1Ulna

4. Hand: 8 Carpals, 5 Metacarpals, 14 Phalanges

Spine of scapula relevance of feature

Partial attachment of Trapezius & Deltoid

Acromion helpful facts and relevance of feature

Acro: Highest (relating to shoulder)

Partial attachment of Trapezius & Deltoid

Supraspinous fossa helpful facts & relevance of feature

Supra: Above the spine

Proximal attachment Supraspinatus Muscle

Infraspinous fossa helpful facts& relevance of feature

Infra: Below the spine

Proximal attachment infraspinatus muscle

Subscapular Fossa helpful facts & relevance of feature

Sub: Under surface more of an anterior surface but the bone is not perfectly vertical.

Chapter 11 Summary

In this chapter, you learned about the skeletal system. Specifically, you learned that:

  • The skeletal system is the organ system that provides an internal framework for the human body. In adults, the skeletal system contains 206 bones.
  • Bones are organs made of supportive connective tissues, mainly the tough protein collagen . Bones also contain blood vessels, nerves, and other tissues. Bones are hard and rigid, due to deposits of calcium and other mineral salts within their living tissues. Besides bones, the skeletal system includes cartilage and ligaments.
  • The skeletal system has many different functions, including supporting the body and giving it shape, protecting internal organs, providing attachment surfaces for skeletal muscles, allowing body movements, producing blood cells, storing minerals, helping to maintain mineral homeostasis , and producing endocrine hormones.
  • There is relatively little sexual dimorphism in the human skeleton, although the female skeleton tends to be smaller and less robust than the male skeleton. The greatest sex difference is in the pelvis, which is adapted for childbirth in females.
  • The skeleton is traditionally divided into two major parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.
  • The axial skeleton consists of a total of 80 bones. It includes the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. It also includes the three tiny ossicles in the middle ear and the hyoid bone in the throat.
    • The skull provides a bony framework for the head. It consists of 22 different bones: eight in the cranium , which encloses the brain, and 14 in the face, which includes the upper and lower jaw.
    • The vertebral column is a flexible, S-shaped column of 33 vertebrae that connects the trunk with the skull and encloses the spinal cord. The vertebrae are divided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal regions. The S shape of the vertebral column allows it to absorb shocks and distribute the weight of the body.
    • The rib cage holds and protects the organs of the upper part of the trunk, including the heart and lungs. It includes the 12 thoracic vertebrae, the sternum, and 12 pairs of ribs.
      • Each upper limb consists of 30 bones. There is one bone (called the humerus) in the upper arm, and two bones (called the ulna and radius) in the lower arm. The wrist contains eight carpal bones, the hand contains five metacarpals, and the fingers consist of 14 phalanges. The thumb is opposable to the palm and fingers of the same hand.
      • Each lower limb also consists of 30 bones. There is one bone (called the femur) in the upper leg, and two bones (called the tibia and fibula) in the lower leg. The patella covers the knee joint. The ankle contains seven tarsal bones, and the foot contains five metatarsals. The tarsals and metatarsals form the heel and arch of the foot. The bones in the toes consist of 14 phalanges.
      • The shoulder girdle attaches the upper limbs to the trunk of the body. It is connected to the axial skeleton only by muscles, allowing mobility of the upper limbs. Bones of the shoulder girdle include a right and left clavicle, and a right and left scapula.
      • The pelvic girdle attaches the legs to the trunk of the body and supports the organs of the abdomen. It is connected to the axial skeleton by ligaments. The pelvic girdle consists of two halves that are fused together in adults. Each half consists of three bones: the ilium, pubis, and ischium.
        • There are two types of osseous tissues: compact bone tissue and spongy bone tissue . Compact bone tissue is smooth and dense. It forms the outer layer of bones. Spongy bone tissue is porous and light, and it is found inside many bones.
          • Movable joints can be classified further according to the type of movement they allow. There are six classes of movable joints: pivot , hinge , saddle , plane , condyloid , and ball-and-socket joints.
            • Osteoporosis is diagnosed by measuring a patient’s bone density and comparing it with the normal level of peak bone density. Fractures are the most dangerous aspect of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is rarely fatal, but complications of fractures often are.
            • Risk factors for osteoporosis include older age, female sex, European or Asian ancestry, family history of osteoporosis, short stature and small bones, smoking, alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, vitamin D deficiency, poor nutrition, and consumption of soft drinks.
            • Osteoporosis is often treated with medications (such as bisphosphonates) that may slow or even reverse bone loss. Preventing osteoporosis includes eliminating any risk factors that can be controlled through changes of behavior, such as undertaking weight-bearing exercise.
              • Diagnosis of OA is typically made on the basis of signs and symptoms, such as joint deformities, pain, and stiffness. X-rays or other tests are sometimes used to either support the diagnosis or rule out other disorders. Age is the chief risk factor for OA. Other risk factors include joint injury, excess body weight, and a family history of OA.
              • OA cannot be cured, but the symptoms can often be treated successfully. Treatments may include exercise, efforts to decrease stress on joints, pain medications, and surgery to replace affected hip or knee joints.

              As you have learned in this chapter, one of the important functions of the skeletal system is to allow movement of the body. But it doesn’t do it alone. Movement is caused by the contraction of muscles, which pull on the bones, causing them to move. Read the next chapter to learn about this and other important functions of the muscular system.


              The overall patterns of the forelimbs and hindlimbs are so similar ancestrally, and branch out in similar ways that they are given shared names. Limbs are attached to the pectoral girdle or pelvic girdle. The one bony element of the upper limb is the stylopodium, the two bones of the lower limb are the zeugopodium. The distal portion of the limbs, that is, the hands or feet, are known as autopodia. Hands are technically known as the manus, and feet as the pes, which are both composed of carpals and digits. As metapodials, the metacarpals and metatarsals are analogous to each other. [3]

              Limb development is controlled by Hox genes. All jawed vertebrates surveyed so far organize their developing limb buds in a similar way. Growth occurs from proximal to distal part of the limb. On the distal end, the differentiation of skeletal elements occurs in an apical ectodermal ridge (AER) which expands in rays. A Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA) at the rear part of the AER coordinates the differentiation of digits. [3]

              Exercise 9 .

              (T/F) Osteons are found in compact bone, but not in spongy bone.

              The main function of the appendicular skeleton is to _____.
              a. Protect the brain
              b. Regulate body temperature
              c. Facilitate movement
              d. Protect the abdominal organs

              (T/F) The 206 bones of the adult skeletal system are organized into the cephalic and thoracic divisions.

              The Haversion system refers to _______. a. lamellae
              b. osteons
              c. lacunae
              d. central canals

              c. blood vessels and nerves

              (T/F) The trabeculae of cancellous bone are composed of layers of osteons.

              Which type of lamella is located below the periosteum and is added as a bone grows in diameter?
              a. Circumferential lamella
              b. Interstitial lamella
              c. Concentric lamella

              a. Circumferential lamella

              sharp and slender process

              large, rough protruding process

              small, rough protruding process

              rounded or oval opening for the passage of blood vessels and/or nerves

              tube like passageway through a bone

              Which of the following is not a bone of the axial skeleton?

              a. clavicle
              b. sternum
              c. vertebrae
              d. rib
              e. skull

              The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the _____.

              a. medullary cavity
              b. osseophysis
              c. metaphysis
              d. epiphysis
              e. diaphysis

              This part of the bone contains many internal trabeculae

              a. articular surface
              b. metaphysis
              c. disphysis
              d. medullary cavity
              e. epiphysis

              The pectoral girdle is part of the ____.

              A shallow depression in a bone is a

              a. foramen
              b. groove
              c. fossa
              d. fissure
              e. sulcus

              A deep hollow on a bone is termed a

              a. fissue
              b. sulcus
              c. fossa
              d. face
              e. line

              A hole through a bone is termed a

              a. foramen
              b. tubercle
              c. linea
              d. facet
              e. ramus

              Which of the following is a function of the skeletal system?

              a. body support
              b. protection of internal organs
              c. calcium homeostasis
              d. blood cell production
              e. all of the above

              Which of the following is not part of the appendicular skeleton?

              a. ulna
              b. radious
              c. carpal
              d. hyoid
              e. humerus

              The smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a

              a. crest
              b. head
              c. ridge
              d. condyle
              e. trochlea


              Bones Edit

              The humerus is one of the three long bones of the arm. It joins with the scapula at the shoulder joint and with the other long bones of the arm, the ulna and radius at the elbow joint. [4] The elbow is a complex hinge joint between the end of the humerus and the ends of the radius and ulna. [5]

              Muscles Edit

              The arm is divided by a fascial layer (known as lateral and medial intermuscular septa) separating the muscles into two osteofascial compartments: the anterior and the posterior compartments of the arm. The fascia merges with the periosteum (outer bone layer) of the humerus. [6]

              The anterior compartment contains three muscles: biceps brachii, brachialis and coracobrachialis muscles. They are all innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve. The posterior compartment contains only the triceps brachii muscle, supplied by the radial nerve. [7] [8] [9]

              Nerve supply Edit

              The musculocutaneous nerve, from C5, C6, C7, is the main supplier of muscles of the anterior compartment. It originates from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus of nerves. It pierces the coracobrachialis muscle and gives off branches to the muscle, as well as to brachialis and biceps brachii. It terminates as the anterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

              The radial nerve, which is from the fifth cervical spinal nerve to the first thoracic spinal nerve, originates as the continuation of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. This nerve enters the lower triangular space (an imaginary space bounded by, amongst others, the shaft of the humerus and the triceps brachii) of the arm and lies deep to the triceps brachii. Here it travels with the deep artery of the arm, which sits in the radial groove of the humerus. This fact is very important clinically as a fracture of the shaft of the bone here can cause lesions or even transections in the nerve.

              Other nerves passing through give no supply to the arm. These include:

              • The median nerve, nerve origin C5-T1, which is a branch of the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus. This nerve continues in the arm, travelling in a plane between the biceps and triceps muscles. At the cubital fossa, this nerve is deep to the pronator teres muscle and is the most medial structure in the fossa. The nerve passes into the forearm.
              • The ulnar nerve, origin C8-T1, is a continuation of the medial cord of the brachial plexus. This nerve passes in the same plane as the median nerve, between the biceps and triceps muscles. At the elbow, this nerve travels posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus. This means that condylarfractures can cause lesion to this nerve.

              Blood supply Edit

              The main artery in the arm is the brachial artery. This artery is a continuation of the axillary artery. The point at which the axillary becomes the brachial is distal to the lower border of teres major. The brachial artery gives off an unimportant branch, the deep artery of arm. This branching occurs just below the lower border of teres major.

              The brachial artery continues to the cubital fossa in the anterior compartment of the arm. It travels in a plane between the biceps and triceps muscles, the same as the median nerve and basilic vein. It is accompanied by venae comitantes (accompanying veins). It gives branches to the muscles of the anterior compartment. The artery is in between the median nerve and the tendon of the biceps muscle in the cubital fossa. It then continues into the forearm.

              The deep artery of the arm travels through the lower triangular space with the radial nerve. From here onwards it has an intimate relationship with the radial nerve. They are both found deep to the triceps muscle and are located on the spiral groove of the humerus. Therefore, fracture of the bone may not only lead to lesion of the radial nerve, but also haematoma of the internal structures of the arm. The artery then continues on to anastamose with the recurrent radial branch of the brachial artery, providing a diffuse blood supply for the elbow joint.

              Veins Edit

              The veins of the arm carry blood from the extremities of the limb, as well as drain the arm itself. The two main veins are the basilic and the cephalic veins. There is a connecting vein between the two, the median cubital vein, which passes through the cubital fossa and is clinically important for venepuncture (withdrawing blood).

              The basilic vein travels on the medial side of the arm and terminates at the level of the seventh rib.

              The cephalic vein travels on the lateral side of the arm and terminates as the axillary vein. It passes through the deltopectoral triangle, a space between the deltoid and the pectoralis major muscles.

              In Hindu, Buddhist and Egyptian iconography the symbol of the arm is used to illustrate the power of the sovereign. In Hindu tradition gods are depicted with several arms which carry specific symbols of their powers. It is believed that several arms depict omnipotence of gods. In popular culture Thakur did not have arms in the movie Sholay.

              In West Africa, the Bambara use forearm to symbolize the spirit, which is a link between God and man.

              Symbolic gestures of raising both hands signal surrender, appeals for mercy, and justice. [10]

              The importance and structure of the appendicular skeleton

              The skeletal system consists of 206 named bones that make up the skeleton, It is divided into main divisions which are the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton, It gives the shape to the body and it supports the body weight, without the bones you can not stand or sit erect.

              The skeleton system

              The bones in our body connect and form the skeleton, our skeleton gives our body the shape, It supports our body and protects the important organs in our body.

              The skeletal system protects the organs such as the heart , the lungs and the brain , The backbone supports our body, The ribcage protects our lungs and the heart , The skull protects our brain and the eyes.

              The appendicular skeleton

              The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of upper limbs, the bones of lower limbs and their girdles Tan bones.

              The bones of the upper limbs consist of 3 parts which are the humerus bone, the forearm bones, hand bones, and it is connected to the shoulder bones, The bones of the upper limbs allow eating, drinking and holding the things.

              The bones of the lower limbs consist of 3 parts which are the femur bone, the shaft bones, the foot bones, and it is connected to the pelvic bones, The bones of the lower limbs allow walking, running, standing and carrying the rest of the body.

              Watch the video: Bones of the Upper Limb Clavicle, Scapula u0026 Humerus (July 2022).


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