Glossary - Letter A

Glossary - Letter A

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THE - Vitamin A or retinol. Fat-soluble vitamin that prevents xerophytmia and hemeralopia (night blindness). Main sources: milk, butter, carrots, pepper, cod liver oil and many vegetables.

Chromosome aberration - Generically, any structural or numerical change of chromosomes in the cell. See also syndromes (Down, Klinefelter, Turner, etc.).

Abiotic - is the nonliving component of the environment. Includes the physical and chemical conditions of the medium.
Abscission- Falling leaves or fruits on vegetables.

Nucleic acid - Macromolecule present in the cells of all living beings; it is related to heredity (see DNA and RNA) .oms whose centromere visibly shifts from the center. (see centromere).

Actina - Protein related to cell movement. Present in large quantities in the musculature. See myosin.

Sugar - Class of organic substances consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms (see also Carbohydrate, Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides).

Aerobic - Being or organism that lives, grows or metabolizes only in the presence of oxygen.
Afferent - That's enough. Nerves that make the nerve impulse get to the CNS are called afferent nerves, for example. See also efferent.

Etiological Agents - Those that cause disease. Etiology = cause, principle.

Agglutination - The same as gathering, approaching, gathering

Allele - Which are side by side. Gene alleles of those in the same position are said on different chromosomes of the homologous pair. Which occupy the same locus on homologous chromosomes.

Fingerling - Embryonic stage of fish. A large vitelline sac in the ventral region is noted at this stage.

Starch - Polysaccharide synthesized by assembling glucose molecules, used by certain algae and plants as a reserve substance.

Amyloplasts - Or starch grain; structure present exclusively in plant and algal cells; originates from the starch-storing leukoplast.

Anaerobic - Applied to cells (mainly bacterial) that can live without free oxygen; obligatory anaerobes cannot live in the presence of oxygen; facultative anaerobes can live with or without oxygen.

Anaphase - Cell division phase where chromosomes separate towards the cell poles.

Androceu - Set of stamens that forms the male reproductive tract in angiosperm flowers.

Angiosperm - Tracheophyta division class. (From Greek: angion, vase + sperma, seed). Literally, seed produced in a pot; thus group of plants whose seeds are carried within a mature ovary (fruit). Sperm-forming fruit. Seeds protected by the fruits. They are monocotyledons and dicotyledons.

Antibiotics - Organic substance capable of inhibiting the proliferation of bacteria, penicillin, for example, is an antibiotic.

Antibodies - Protein substance produced by lymphocytes that attack and destroy foreign substances or microorganisms (antigens).

Antigen - Any substance or particle that, when introduced into the body, causes a defense (immune) reaction with antibody production.

Autophagy - Self = by itself / fagia = eating We use this term to mean self-digestion. It occurs in cells or tissues that, by releasing digestive enzymes within their structures, end up self-digesting.

Autophagic - Beings or structures that promote autophagy.

Autolysis - Auto = by itself / lysis = break or digest. It is the same as autophagy.

Autotrophs - living things, such as plants, which produce their own food at the expense of solar energy, air CO2 and ground water. Word originated from the Greek autos = own + trophos = nourish.

Avascular - Regarding what does not have vascularization tissue (conductive vessels in vegetables; blood vessels in animals).
Birdlife - Set of bird species living in a particular region.