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Reading: Protists - Biology

Reading: Protists - Biology



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The goal of this exercise is to learn about the protists. We will study major groups and for most of the groups, we will study representative genera.

Procedure

For each specimen:

  1. Read the information thoroughly.
  2. Create notes. Your notes will be most helpful if they include a drawing, a description, and significant information such as life cycle, commercial value, ecological significance, and unusual characteristics.

Euglenozoans

Kinetoplastids

Kinetoplastids are flagellated and unicellular. They have a dark staining region of mitochondria called a kinetoplast.

Some kinetoplastids are symbiotic (close) relationships with other organisms. Trypanosomes are Kinetoplastids that cause African sleeping sickness. They are transmitted to their human hosts by the bite of a tsetse fly. Trypanosoma causes African sleeping sickness.

Euglena

Euglena are unicellular. Many Euglenids feed by phagocytosis. Many species of Euglenids are photosynthetic but can become heterotrophic when sunlight is unavailable (mixotrophs).

Euglena use flagella for moving. The outer covering called a pellicle, is flexible and assists in moving. Some have an eyespot with a photoreceptor is capable of detecting the presence of light. Reproduction is asexual.

Diatoms

Diatoms are the most numerous unicellular algae in the oceans and as such are an important source of food and oxygen. They are also important in freshwater environments. They capture 20 to 25% of solar energy captured by living organisms. The cell walls of diatoms contain silica (a component of glass) and are formed in 2 halves like a pillbox. Their remains form diatomaceous earth. It is used for filtering agents, and abrasives such as scouring powders. Diatoms are a major component of phytoplankton in freshwater and marine environments.

Brown Algae

Brown algae are autotrophs (photosynthetic). Their characteristic brown color is due to carotenoid pigments. They are multicellular and range in size from small to very large. Some are 50 m to 100 m long. They are often found along rocky shores in temperate climates. The body (thallus) contains holdfasts for attachment, blades, and a stem-like structure that holds the blades is called a stipe. Many species have floats that function in floatation. Some have gas-filled floats. Mucilaginous (slimy) material in the cell walls retards drying in exposed individuals when the tide goes out. Most species have a life cycle with alternation of generations.

Fucus

Fucus is a common “seaweed” found along the rocky coast. Some species of Fucus have diploid adults.

Figure 1. Gametes are produced in the receptacles.

Macrocystis and Nereocystis

Macrocystis and nereocystis are deep-water kelps.

Sargassam

Sargassam sometimes breaks off to form floating masses. Other marine organisms congregate around these masses.

Laminaria

Laminaria is a brown alga that is usually found attached just below the intertidal zone. It has a life cycle with alternation of generations.

Figure 2. Alternation of Generations

Dinoflagellates

Protective cellulose plates cover dinoflagellates and two flagella enable them to move. One of the flagella lies in a transverse groove that causes cell to spin as it moves.

Most are found in marine or freshwater environments and many are photosynthetic. They are important components of phytoplankton and thus are important in aquatic food chains. This group also includes many heterotrophic and many mixotrophic species.

Some species are responsible for red tides that kill fish and shellfish (Gymnodinium, Gonyaulax, Pfiesteria). Some live as symbiants within some invertebrates. For example, some corals grow faster with dinoflagellates living within their cells. Some species are capable of bioluminescence (they produce light).

Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur. Sexual reproduction produces cysts which are resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions. Cysts are dormant and become active when environmental conditions improve.

Ciliates

The genus Vorticella belongs in this group.

Paramecium

Figure 3. Paramecium caudatum X 100

The pellicle (outer covering) of paramecium is covered with hundreds of cilia. They have numerous organelles including a gullet (oral groove) and an anal pore. Ciliates have a large macronucleus and a smaller micronucleus.

The micronucleus is involved in sexual and asexual reproduction. Other nuclear activities are handled by the macronucleus. The macronucleus is polyploid (approximately 860 N in Paramecium aurelia) and the micronucleus is diploid.

Figure 4. Paramecium X 200

During reproduction, the macronucleus disintegrates. Later, a micronucleus will develop into a macronucleus. Most reproduction is asexual (mitosis). Sexual reproduction is by conjugation.

The micronucleus will divide by meiosis; 3 of the 4 resulting nuclei will disintegrate as will the macronucleus. The remaining haploid nucleus will divide by mitosis producing an individual with two haploid nuclei. Two conjugating individuals will each exchange one of the nuclei. The two haploid nuclei will then fuse producing a diploid nucleus.


Red Algae

Red algae are mostly multicellular and are found mainly in warmer, tropical oceans. Their red color is due to an accessory photosynthetic pigment called phycoerythrin. The accessory pigments of red algae are able to absorb blue and green light. This allows some species to survive in deep waters where blue and green light predominates.

Some species are filamentous but most have a complex pattern of branching. Some coralline forms deposit calcium carbonate in their cell walls, which contributes to the development of coral reefs.

Green Algae

Four common forms of green algae are single-celled, colonial, filamentous, and multicellular. Green algae are thought to be ancestors of the first plants. Both kinds of organisms have the following characteristics in common:

  1. They have a cell wall that contains cellulose.
  2. They have chlorophyll a and b.
  3. They store their food as starch inside the chloroplast.

Most species are freshwater but there are many marine species. Some live in damp soil.

Chlamydomonas

Chlamydomonas is a single-celled organism with two flagella. Although this organism is a single cell, the life cycle is similar to that with haploid adults.

Figure 5. Chlamydomonas’ life cycle

It reproduces asexually (by mitosis) when conditions are favorable. Sexual reproduction occurs when conditions become unfavorable. The zygote forms a thick-walled zygospore that is resistant to environmental extremes and divides by meiosis when environmental conditions become favorable.

Most species of Chlamydomonas are isogamous (both gametes are the same size; they are isogametes), some are oogamous (gametes are two sizes; the larger gametes are eggs, the smaller ones are sperm).

Volvox

Volvox is a colonial green algae. The cells are arranged in a gelatinous sphere with two flagella directed to the outside. They divide asexually to produce a daughter colony.

Some cells are specialized to produce sperm and eggs for sexual reproduction. Specialization of cells as seen in the reproductive cells is a characteristic of multicellular organisms. Volvox is considered to be a colony because it appears to be intermediate between a group of individual cells and a multicellular organism.

Spirogyra

Spirogyra is a filamentous form. It has a ribbonlike spiral-shaped chloroplast. The life cycle has haploid adults.

Sexual reproduction occurs by conjugation. Conjugation refers to the process where gametes are transferred from one individual to another by a connection between the two.

The zygote is resistant and overwinters. In the spring, it divides by meiosis to produce haploid filaments.

Ulva

Ulva is multicellular with a leaflike body that is two cells thick but up to one meter long. The life cycle is alternation of generations. Both the haploid and the diploid generations look alike (isomorphic).


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Biology is the science of life. Its name is derived from the Greek words “bio” (life) and “logo” (study). Biologists study the structure, functions, development, origin, evolution, and division of biology. Generally, there are at least nine “composite” biological fields, many sub-fields from each.

  • Biochemistry: It is the study of chemical compounds and chemical processes found in living organisms.
  • Botany: It deals with the study of plants and their parts.
  • Cellular Biology: Study of Basic Cellular Units of Living Biology i.e. cell.
  • Environmental Biology: It is the study, how living organisms communicate with their environment?.
  • Evolution Biology: the study of heredity characters and change in the diversity of life over time.
  • Genetic: It is the study of heredity.
  • Molecular Biology: the study of biological molecules.
  • Physiology: Study of the functioning of parts of living organisms.
  • Zoology: It is an animal study including animal behavior.

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A multi-disciplinary approach to examining the impact of infectious diseases on human populations. Current persistent, epidemic, and emerging diseases and how they are identified, studied, and combatted will be discussed. Topics will also include the sociological, psychological, historical,…

A multi-disciplinary approach to examining the impact of infectious diseases on human populations. Current persistent, epidemic and emerging diseases and how they are identified, studied and combatted will be discussed. Topics will also include the sociological, psychological, historical, legal…

A multi-disciplinary approach to examining the impact of infectious diseases on human populations. Current persistent, epidemic and emerging diseases and how they are identified, studied and combatted will be discussed. Topics will also include the sociological, psychological, historical, legal…

Lectures, readings, and discussion of topics related to a central theme of special interest in the field of cellular biology. Scientific communication will be emphasized, and visits to laboratories may be scheduled. Topics and instructors vary from semester to semester.


Reading: Protists - Biology

20-3 Plantlike Protists: Unicellular Algae

1. There are _____________ major phyla of algae classified according to a variety of __________________ characteristics.
2. List the four phyla that are unicellular. _______________________________________________________________________________________
3. One of the key traits used to classify algae is the _______________ ______ __________________
pigments they contain.
4. What is the major difficulty for algae? ______________________________________
5. Sea water absorbs large amounts of the ________________ and _______________ wavelengths.
6. Various groups of algae have evolved different forms of chlorophyll. Name the three chlorophyll forms. ________________________________________________________
7. Compounds called ____________ ____________ absorb light at different wavelengths than chlorophyll.
8. Accessory pigments give algae a wide range of ___________________.
9. ____________________ are plantlike protists that have ______ flagella but no cell _________________.
10. Euglenas are found where? _____________________________________________
11. The _______________________ helps the Euglena find sunlight.
12. Euglenas have an intricate cell membrane called a ______________________________.
13. How do euglenophytes reproduce? _______________________________________
14. Chrysophytes means ________________ ________________________.
15. How do chrysophytes store their food? ____________________________________
16. What do diatoms produce their thin, delicate cell walls from? _________________________
17. About __________ of the dinoflagellates are photosynthetic the other __________ live as ____________________.
18. When agitated by sudden movement, some dinoflagellates give off ___________________.
19. Plantlike protists plays a major _____________________________ role on Earth.
20. They (protists) are at the base of the _______________ _____________________.
21. ________________________ constitutes the population of small, _________________________ organisms found near the surface of the ocean.
22. Many protists grow rapidly where ________________________ is discharged.
23. Enormous masses of algae are known as _____________________________.
24. What is "red tide"? ____________________________________________________
25. Eating shellfish from water infected with _____________ tide can cause serious illness and even _______________ in humans and fish.

20-4 Plantlike Protists: Red, Brown, and Green Algae

26. Name the accessory pigment of red algae. _______________________________
27. What color light does it absorb? _______________________________________
28. Where can red algae be found? ________________________________________
29. Red algae plays an important role in the formation of the_________________ ___________________.
30. Phylum Pheaophyta means __________________ _______________________.
31. Where do you find brown algae? _________________________________________
32. What is the function of brown algae's bladder? _____________________________
33. Green algae stores food in the form of _________________________.
34. Where do you find green algae? _________________________________________
35. What is the name of the algae that form long threadlike colonies? ___________________________
What is the name of the algae that is arranged as a hollow sphere? _____________________________
36. Algae produce much of Earth's oxygen through _____________________________
37. What is nori and how is it used? _________________________________________
38. Chemical from algae are used to make _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

20-5 Funguslike Protists

39. Like fungi, funguslike protists are ______________________ that absorb nutrients from dead or decaying ____________________ ______________________.
40. Unlike most true fungi, funguslike protists have _____________________ and lack _________
__________________.
41. Where are slime molds found? __________________________________________________
42. The individual cells of _________________ ____________ _________________ remain distinct while those whose cells fuse to form large cells with many nuclei are called ______________________ ____________________ _________________________,
43. Cellular slime molds are a. free living
b. parasites

44. Acellular slime molds belong to phylum _____________________________.
45. Water molds are also know as _____________________________.
46. Water molds produce thin filaments known as __________________.
47. What is the scientific name of the protist that caused the Irish potato blight of 1845?
______________________ _______________________


Proverbs 26:11

11 As a dog returns to his own vomit,
So a fool repeats his folly.

There are two types of slime molds when it comes to how they swarm: acellular and cellular.

  • When acellular slime molds swarm, they fuse together to form a single cell with many nuclei.
  • When cellular slime molds swarm, they remain as distinct cells.

Cellular slime molds are used as model organisms in molecular biology and genetics. They may be the key to how multicellular organisms evolved. Can you explain why?

Water Molds

Water molds are commonly found in moist soil and surface water. Many are plant pathogens that destroy crops. They infect plants such as grapes, lettuce, corn, and potatoes. Some water molds are parasites of fish and other aquatic organisms.

Note: There is a brief mention of evolution in the following video:

Lesson Summary

  • Animal-like protists are called protozoa. Most consist of a single cell. Like animals, they are heterotrophic and capable of moving. Examples of protozoa include amoebas and paramecia.
  • Plant-like protists are called algae. They include single-celled diatoms and multicellular seaweed. Like plants, they contain chlorophyll and make food by photosynthesis. Types of algae include red and green algae, euglenids, and dinoflagellates.
  • Fungus-like protists are molds. They are absorptive feeders, found on decaying organic matter. They resemble fungi and reproduce with spores as fungi do. Examples of fungus-like protists include slime molds and water molds.

Lesson Review Questions

Recall

1. How are protozoa similar to animals?

2. What roles do protozoa play in food chains and webs?

3. State pros and cons of asexual and sexual reproduction in algae.

4. How are fungus-like protists similar to fungi? What is one way they are different?

Apply Concepts

5. Assume that a new species of organism has been discovered and it’s your job to classify it. The organism consists of a single cell with a nucleus. It has cilia and obtains food by consuming other single-celled organisms. Name a genus that the new species could possibly be placed in. Explain your answer.

Think Critically

6. Compare and contrast algae and plants.

7. Explain why dinoflagellates and euglenids have chloroplasts with three membranes instead of two.

Points to Consider

In this lesson you read about slime molds and water molds. These aren’t the only kinds of molds. In fact, you are probably more familiar with molds that are classified as fungi. The next lesson introduces the fungi.


Features of protozoans

Although protozoans are no longer recognized as a formal group in current biological classification systems, protozoan can still be useful as a strictly descriptive term. The protozoans are unified by their heterotrophic mode of nutrition, meaning that these organisms acquire carbon in reduced form from their surrounding environment. However, this is not a unique feature of protozoans. Furthermore, this description is not as straightforward as it seems. For instance, many protists are mixotrophs, capable of both heterotrophy (secondary energy derivation through the consumption of other organisms) and autotrophy (primary energy derivation, such as through the capture of sunlight or metabolism of chemicals in the environment). Examples of protozoan mixotrophs include many chrysophytes. Some protozoans, such as Paramecium bursaria, have developed symbiotic relationships with eukaryotic algae, while the amoeba Paulinella chromatophora remarkably appears to have acquired autotrophy via relatively recent endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterium (a blue-green alga). Hence, many protozoans either perform photosynthesis themselves or benefit from the photosynthetic capabilities of other organisms. Some algal species of protozoans, however, have lost the ability to photosynthesize (e.g., Polytomella species and many dinoflagellates), further complicating the concept of “protozoan.”

Protozoans are motile nearly all possess flagella, cilia, or pseudopodia that allow them to navigate their aqueous habitats. However, this commonality does not represent a unique trait among protozoans for example, organisms that are clearly not protozoans also produce flagella at various stages in their life cycles (e.g., most brown algae). Protozoans are also strictly non-multicellular and exist as either solitary cells or cell colonies. Nevertheless, some colonial organisms (e.g., Dictyostelium discoideum, supergroup Amoebozoa) exhibit high levels of cell specialization that border on multicellularity.

The descriptive guidelines presented above exclude many organisms, such as flagellated photosynthetic taxa (formerly Phytomastigophora), that were considered protozoans by older classification schemes. Organisms that fit the contemporary definition of a protozoan are found in all major groups of protists that are recognized by protistologists, reflecting the paraphyletic nature of protozoans.

The most important groups of free-living protozoans are found within several major evolutionary clusters of protists, including the ciliates (supergroup Chromalveolata), the lobose amoebae (supergroup Amoebozoa), the filose amoebae (supergroup Rhizaria), the cryptomonads (supergroup Chromalveolata), the excavates (supergroup Excavata), the opisthokonts (supergroup Opisthokonta), and the euglenids (Euglenozoa). These groups of organisms are important ecologically for their role in microbial nutrient cycles and are found in a wide variety of environments, from terrestrial soils to freshwater and marine habitats to aquatic sediments and sea ice. Significant protozoan parasites include representatives from Apicomplexa (supergroup Chromalveolata) and the trypanosomes (Euglenozoa). Organisms from these groups are the causative agents of human diseases such as malaria and African sleeping sickness. Owing to the prevalence of these human pathogens, and to the ecological importance of the free-living protozoan groups mentioned above, much is known about these groups. This article therefore concentrates on the biology of these comparatively well-characterized protozoans. At the end of this article is a summary of the contemporary protistan classification scheme.


Defining the protists

From the time of Aristotle, near the end of the 4th century bce , until well after the middle of the 20th century, the entire biotic world was generally considered divisible into just two great kingdoms, the plants and the animals. The separation was based on the assumption that plants are pigmented (basically green), nonmotile (most commonly from being rooted in the soil), photosynthetic and therefore capable solely of self-contained (autotrophic) nutrition, and unique in possessing cellulosic walls around their cells. By contrast, animals are without photosynthetic pigments (colourless), actively motile, nutritionally phagotrophic (and therefore required to capture or absorb important nutrients), and without walls around their cells.

When microscopy arose as a science in its own right, botanists and zoologists discovered evidence of the vast diversity of life mostly invisible to the unaided eye. With rare exception, authorities of the time classified such microscopic forms as minute plants (called algae) and minute animals (called “first animals,” or protozoa). Such taxonomic assignments went essentially unchallenged for many years, despite the fact that the great majority of those minute forms of life—not to mention certain macroscopic ones, various parasitic forms, and the entire group known as the fungi—did not possess the cardinal characteristics on which the “plants” and “animals” had been differentiated and thus had to be forced to fit into those kingdom categories.

In 1860, however, British naturalist John Hogg took exception to the imposition of the plant and animal categories on the protists and proposed a fourth kingdom, named Protoctista (the other three kingdoms encompassed the animals, the plants, and the minerals). Six years later German zoologist Ernst Haeckel (having dropped the mineral kingdom) proposed a third kingdom, the Protista, to embrace microorganisms. In the late 1930s American botanist Herbert F. Copeland proposed a separate kingdom for the bacteria (kingdom Monera), based on their unique absence of a clearly defined nucleus. Under Copeland’s arrangement, the kingdom Protista thus consisted of nucleated life that was neither plant nor animal. The following decade he revived the name Protoctista, using it in favour of Protista.

The next major change in the systematics of lower forms came through an advancement in the concept of the composition of the biotic world. About 1960, resurrecting and embellishing an idea originally conceived two decades earlier by French marine biologist Edouard Chatton but universally overlooked, Roger Yate Stanier, Cornelius B. van Niel, and their colleagues formally proposed the division of all living things into two great groups, the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. This organization was based on characteristics—such as the presence or absence of a true nucleus, the simplicity or complexity of the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules constituting the chromosomes, and the presence or absence of intracellular membranes (and of specialized organelles apart from ribosomes) in the cytoplasm—that revealed a long phylogenetic separation of the two assemblages. The concept of “protists” originally embraced all the microorganisms in the biotic world. The entire assemblage thus included the protists plus the bacteria, the latter considered at that time to be lower protists. The great evolutionary boundary between the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes, however, has meant a major taxonomic boundary restricting the protists to eukaryotic microorganisms (but occasionally including relatively macroscopic organisms) and the bacteria to prokaryotic microorganisms.

During the 1970s and ’80s, attention was redirected to the problem of possible high-level systematic subdivisions within the eukaryotes. American biologists Robert H. Whittaker and Lynn Margulis, as well as others, became involved in such challenging questions. A major outcome was widespread support among botanists and zoologists for considering living organisms as constituting five separate kingdoms, four of which were placed in what was conceived of as the superkingdom Eukaryota (Protista, Plantae, Animalia, and Fungi) the fifth kingdom, Monera, constituted the superkingdom Prokaryota.

In the late 1970s, realizing distinctions between certain prokaryotes, American microbiologist Carl R. Woese proposed a system whereby life was divided into three domains: Eukarya for all eukaryotes, Bacteria for the true bacteria, and Archaea for primitive prokaryotes that are distinct from true bacteria. Woese’s scheme was unique for its focus on molecular characteristics, particularly certain RNA sequences. Although imperfect, RNA analyses have provided great insight into the evolutionary relatedness of organisms, which in turn has led to extensive reassessment of protist taxonomy such that many scientists no longer consider kingdom Protista to be a valid grouping.


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In this lab course, the fundamental principles of living organisms will be studied, including physical and chemical properties of life, organization, function, evolutionary adaptation, and classification. Concepts of cytology, reproduction, genetics, and scientific reasoning are included. A student may not use both BIOL 1306 & BIOL 1106 and BIOL 1308 & BIOL 1108 to satisfy the core.

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In this lab course, the diversity and classification of life will be studied, including animals, plants, protists, fungi, and prokaryotes. Special emphasis will be given to anatomy, physiology, ecology, and evolution of plants and animals. A student may not use both BIOL 1307 & BIOL 1107 and BIOL 1309 & BIOL 1109 to satisfy the core.

BIOL 1108 Biology for Non-Science Majors I (lab) 1 Credit (0 Lec, 3 Lab)

This lab course provides a survey of biological principles with an emphasis on humans, including chemistry of life, cells, structure, function, and reproduction. THIS COURSE IS NOT INTENDED FOR SCIENCE MAJORS. A student may not use both BIOL 1306 & BIOL 1106 and BIOL 1308 & BIOL 1108 to satisfy the core.

BIOL 1109 Biology for Non-Science Majors II (lab) 1 Credit (0 Lec, 3 Lab)

This lab course will provide a survey of biological principles with an emphasis on humans, including evolution, ecology, plant and animal diversity, and physiology. THIS COURSE IS NOT INTENDED FOR SCIENCE MAJORS. A student may not use both BIOL 1307 & BIOL 1107 and BIOL 1309 & BIOL 1109 to satisfy the core.

BIOL 1306 Biology for Science Majors I (lecture) 3 Credits (3 Lec, 0 Lab)

In this lecture course, the fundamental principles of living organisms will be studied, including physical and chemical properties of life, organization, function, evolutionary adaptation, and classification. Concepts of cytology, reproduction, genetics, and scientific reasoning are included. A student may not use both BIOL 1306 & BIOL 1106 and BIOL 1308 & BIOL 1108 to satisfy the core.

BIOL 1307 Biology for Science Majors II (lecture) 3 Credits (3 Lec, 0 Lab)

In this lecture course, the diversity and classification of life will be studied, including animals, plants, protists, fungi, and prokaryotes. Special emphasis will be given to anatomy, physiology, ecology, and evolution of plants and animals. A student may not use both BIOL 1307 & BIOL 1107 and BIOL 1309 & BIOL 1109 to satisfy the core.

BIOL 1308 Biology for Non-Science Majors I (lecture) 3 Credits (3 Lec, 0 Lab)

This lecture course provides a survey of biological principles with an emphasis on humans, including chemistry of life, cells, structure, function, and reproduction. THIS COURSE IS NOT INTENDED FOR SCIENCE MAJORS. A student may not use both BIOL 1306 & BIOL 1106 and BIOL 1308 & BIOL 1108 to satisfy the core.

BIOL 1309 Biology for Non-Science Majors II (lecture) 3 Credits (3 Lec, 0 Lab)

This lecture course will provide a survey of biological principles with an emphasis on humans, including evolution, ecology, plant and animal diversity, and physiology. THIS COURSE IS NOT INTENDED FOR SCIENCE MAJORS. A student may not use both BIOL 1307 & BIOL 1107 and BIOL 1309 & BIOL 1109 to satisfy the core.

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The lab provides a hands-on learning experience for exploration of human system components and basic physiology. Systems to be studied include integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, and special senses. BIOL 1306 and BIOL 1106 is highly recommended for success in BIOL 2101, but it is not required.

BIOL 2102 Anatomy and Physiology II (Lab) 1 Credit (0 Lec, 3 Lab)

The lab provides a hands-on learning experience for exploration of human system components and basic physiology. Systems to be studied include endocrine, cardiovascular, immune, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive (including nutrition), urinary (including fluid and electrolyte balance), and reproductive (including human development and genetics).

BIOL 2120 Microbiology for Health Science Majors (lab) 1 Credit (0 Lec, 3 Lab)

This lab course covers basics of culture and identification of bacteria and microbial ecology. This course is primarily directed at pre-nursing and other pre-allied health majors and covers basics of microbiology. Emphasis is on medical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. (A student may not receive credit for both BIOL 2320 and BIOL 2120 or BIOL 2321 and BIOL 2121.)

BIOL 2121 Microbiology for Science Majors (lab) 1 Credit (0 Lec, 3 Lab)

This lab course focuses on laboratory activities that will reinforce principles of microbiology, including metabolism, structure, function, genetics, and phylogeny of microbes. The course will also examine the interactions of microbes with each other, hosts, and the environment.(A student may not receive credit for both BIOL 2320 & BIOL 2120 and BIOL 2321 & BIOL 2121.) Some prerequisites may be waived with permission of Department Chair.

BIOL 2301 Anatomy and Physiology I (Lecture) 3 Credits (3 Lec, 0 Lab)

Anatomy and Physiology I is the first part of a two course sequence. It is a study of the structure and function of the human body including cells, tissues and organs of the following systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous and special senses. Emphasis is on interrelationships among systems and regulation of physiological functions involved in maintaining homeostasis. BIOL 1306 and BIOL 1106 is highly recommended for success in BIOL 2301, but it is not required.

BIOL 2302 Anatomy and Physiology II (Lecture) 3 Credits (3 Lec, 0 Lab)

Anatomy and Physiology II is the second part of a two-course sequence. It is a study of the structure and function of the human body, including the following systems: endocrine, cardiovascular, immune, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive (including nutrition), urinary (including fluid and electrolyte balance), and reproductive (including human development and genetics). Emphasis is on interrelationships among systems and regulation of physiological functions involved in maintaining homeostasis. Including the digestive, urinary, reproductive, respiratory, and circulatory systems.

BIOL 2320 Microbiology for Health Science Majors (lecture) 3 Credits (3 Lec, 0 Lab)

This lecture course covers basic microbiology and immunology and is primarily directed at pre-nursing, pre-allied health, and non-science majors. It provides an introduction to historical concepts of the nature of microorganisms, microbial diversity, the importance of microorganisms and acellular agents in the biosphere, and their roles in human and animal diseases. Major topics include bacterial structure as well as growth, physiology, genetics, and biochemistry of microorganisms. Emphasis is on medical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. (A student may not receive credit for both BIOL 2320/2120 and BIOL 2321/2121.)

BIOL 2321 Microbiology for Science Majors (lecture) 3 Credits (3 Lec, 0 Lab)

This course focuses on the principles of microbiology, including metabolism, structure, function, genetics, and phylogeny of microbes. The course will also examine the interactions of microbes with each other, hosts, and the environment. (A student may not receive credit for both BIOL 2320 & BIOL 2120 and BIOL 2321 & BIOL 2121.) Some prerequisites may be waived with permission of Department Chair.

BIOL 2389 Academic Cooperative 3 Credits (1 Lec, 8 Lab)

This is an instructional program designed to integrate on-campus study with practical hands-on work experience in the biological sciences/life sciences. In conjunction with class seminars, the individual student will set specific goals and objectives of study of living organisms and their systems.

BIOL 2404 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology (lecture & lab) 4 Credits (3 Lec, 3 Lab)

This course is a study of the structure and function of human anatomy, including the neuroendocrine, integumentary, musculoskeletal, digestive, urinary, reproductive, respiratory, and circulatory systems. Content may be either integrated or specialized. Program Note: This course is designed specifically for Non-Nursing Allied Health Programs - Health Information Technology, Medical Imaging, Respiratory Care, and Surgical Technology programs. Students seeking a nursing degree must take BIOL 2301, BIOL 2101 and BIOL 2302, BIOL 2102 (formerly BIOL 2401 and 2402).


Kingdom Protista - Protists are a very diverse group

Protista are eukaryotes that do not fit into the fungi, plants, or animals kingdoms. Some protists have cell walls, while others do not. Most are unicellular, but some are multicellular. Some have cell specialization, but most do not. Some are autotrophic and others are heterotrophic.

Protists have different methods of moving around as well. As you watch the youtubes below (all of which are short), look for the different ways protists move. Do they use a flagella (a whip like tail), cilia (short hairs), pseudophodia (extensions of their cytoplasm? One type of protist, sporozoans (named that because they form spores) , is not able to move around at all.

Examples of protists include amoebas, diatoms, algae, slime molds, water molds, sporozoans, giant kelp, Euglena, and paramecium.